What Is Polyester Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is polyester

When some people hear the word polyester, they think of scratchy synthetic clothes in garish colors. But there are a lot of different types of polyester, with a wide range of textures and thicknesses. You’ll find polyester by itself, blended with other fibers, and even disguised as more expensive materials like silk.

What is it, and what is polyester made of? The history and processes behind this ubiquitous fabric are quite interesting. So come along and learn where polyester came from and where you’ll find it today.

What is Polyester Made From?

polyester fabric

Polyester is an umbrella term that describes a wide range of synthetic and semi-synthetic materials. Most commonly, the term “polyester” refers to a compound called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). However, different polyesters may contain one or more synthetic or naturally derived ingredients, including plant cutin. [1]

Is polyester plastic, then? Yes, it is. But it’s so much more than that.

You may recognize some specific fabrics which fall into the polyester category, such as:

  • Dacron
  • Mylar
  • Terylene
  • Terycot
  • Terywool
  • PET

Although for many of us, the word brings fabrics to mind, there are different polyesters for a variety of uses. Mylar, the shiny film you might recognize from thermal blankets and foil balloons, is a polyester. PET plastics are another everyday polyester used widely for beverage bottles. And PETF (PET film) is common in packaging and other applications.

How is Polyester Made?

Where does polyester come from?

The four main ingredients of polyester material are coal, air, water, and petroleum. Long, strong polyester molecules are formed by a chemical reaction between an acid and an alcohol. 

Like rayon, polyester fabric fibers are extruded. That is, once the chemical reaction forms long molecules, the mixture is pushed out into a long ribbon. The ribbon is then dried and cut into chips. The chips are mixed and melted down, then subjected to a spinneret to form fibers.

After that, the fibers may go through additional processes. 

They may be calendered, for example. Calendering means using high pressure rollers to press fibers at high heat. This makes fibers stronger and smoother.

Polyester fibers may also undergo singeing. This makes them more pill-resistant and improves the texture.

At this point, a manufacturer may also treat the fibers to make them more resistant to stains or water.

Once treated, manufacturers can knit or weave the fibers into fabric. The fabric may consist of polyester fibers alone, or it may have a mixture of fibers. Polyester fibers add stretch, durability, and wrinkle-resistance to natural fibers like cotton.

You can even recycle some polyester products to make other polyester products, like in the video below.

When Was Polyester Invented?

Research into synthetic fibers goes back to the 1920s, and led to the first synthetic fabrics, which included nylon. This research was largely the work of W.H. Carothers, who was working for DuPont at the time. 

Meanwhile, in Britain, the International General Electric Company patented polyester. 

Chemists John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dixon at Imperial Chemical Industries later expanded on Carothers’ research. Their work would produce PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) in 1941, as well as the first polyester fabric, Terylene.

In 1946, DuPont purchased the legal rights to these materials from Imperial Chemical Industries.

A bit later, in 1950, DuPont produced Dacron. Dacron is a polyester fiber that incorporates the technology used to make nylon. Dupont subsequently produced Mylar, PET film, and other related products.

After that, the number and varieties of polyester materials exploded. Today you can find polyesters in hundreds of different applications, from garments to housewares and furnishings, to industrial applications that may surprise you.

The Difference Between Nylon and Polyester

Nylon and polyester are similar in a lot of ways. They’re both petroleum-based synthetic fabrics. Both are easy to wash, quick to dry, and resist both UV rays and mildew. You’ll find both in a variety of clothing, housewares, and furnishings. The two fabrics also have a wide range of industrial applications. [2]

Chemically, the difference is subtle. Polyester is a polymer. That is, it’s a chemical compound that consists of large molecules made up of smaller molecules of the same type. Nylon is a polyamide. A polyamide is one type of synthetic polymer that has molecules connected by amide bonds. [3, 4, 5]

But what are the differences that matter most to the consumer? In general, you’ll find that:

  • Nylon is stronger and more durable than polyester
  • Nylon is also more weather resistant
  • Polyester is heavier than nylon
  • Polyester is less expensive than nylon

Also, although both materials have a negative environmental impact, they each have an upside. Nylon is made from the by-products of oil refining. As for polyester, it can be recycled to make other polyester products.

Are There Different Types of Polyester Fabric?

polyester sweater

You might think there are a lot of different types, given polyester’s multitudinous forms and uses. However, all of the different varieties of polyester fabric fall into two categories: PET and PCDT.

PET Polyester

PET polyester materials are made from polyethylene terephthalate. The main ingredient of PET polyester is ethylene from petroleum. Catalysts turn the ethylene into a polymer. The polymer is then extruded and dried. The dried PET ribbon is then cut into very small pieces, blended, and spun into yarn.

PET polyester is the most widely used polyester. You no doubt know the term from beverage bottles and food containers. However, PET fabric is also widely used in garment construction.

PCDT Polyester

PCDT polyester and PET polyester both result from a similar process. The difference is in the molecule. PCDT polyester is made by combining terephthalic acid with 1,4-cyclohexane-dimethanol.

Polyester Yarns

Both PET and PCDT polyester fibers can be spun into yarn. Polyester yarns can have a variety of different diameters and staple lengths. The differences in processing at this point account for the many, many weights and textures of different polyester fabrics. [6]

PET Filament Yarns

PET fibers can be spun into either monofilament or multifilament yarn. Both types have different subtypes with different properties. 

High-tenacity PET filament yarn appears in machine belts, ropes, nets, and other industrial applications.

Regular-tenacity semi-dull PET filament yarn is common in garments, including blouses, dresses, and lingerie.

Regular-tenacity bright PET filament yarn, on the other hand, appears in sheer, lightweight fabric like tulle, voile, and organdy.

Textured Yarns

PET multifilament yarns can be processed further to give them a variety of textures.

PET or PCDT Spun Yarns

Cut or staple (short fiber) PET and PCDT fibers can be spun to make yarn. These fibers may have different levels of tenacity (regular, mid, or high) and different levels of luster (bright, semi-dull, and dull).

These yarns may be spun alone. They are also commonly blended with other fibers such as cotton, rayon, and wool, before spinning.

What is Polyester Used For?

An easier question might be what isn’t it used for? Here is a long and incomplete list of where you might find different types of polyester.

Polyester Fabric Uses

  • Clothing
  • Lingerie
  • Linens and Housewares
  • Carpeting
  • Curtains
  • Upholstery
  • Handbags and Luggage
  • Outerwear
  • Tents and sleeping bags

Polyester Film Uses

  • Packaging
  • Audio and videotape
  • Metal can lamination

Other Uses for Polyester Materials

  • Beverage bottles
  • Food storage
  • Industrial belts
  • Synthetic artery replacements
  • Filters
  • Rope
  • Microwave susceptors

What is Polyester Like?

polyester care label

That’s a very broad question. Let’s narrow it down to polyester fabric, shall we? Love it or hate it, polyester fabric has some very unique characteristics.

Is Polyester Stretchy?


Polyester’s unique chemical properties make it naturally stretchy. This is what makes polyester clothing so figure-forgiving and comfortable. Different polyester blends, however, may have a bit less stretch.

In general, polyester fabric snaps right back into place after stretching. If this isn’t the quality you’re looking for with your project, try a blend of polyester and a natural fiber, like cotton. A blended fabric will have some stretch, but not quite as much as 100 percent polyester.

Is Polyester Soft?

Again, this depends. 100 percent polyester can be scratchy. However, some treatments produce a soft, silky texture. Also, when blended with other fibers, polyester can be softer.

Is Polyester Waterproof?

Yes and no. Polyester fibers are waterproof. In fact, they repel moisture. But the gaps between fibers in a polyester fabric may let water in. The good news is, though, that because the fibers repel water, polyester fabric dries very quickly.

Does Polyester Shrink?

Generally no. Polyester is a shrink-resistant, wrinkle-resistant fabric. For this reason, polyester fibers are often combined with fibers that shrink and wrinkle easily, like cotton and wool.

Is Polyester Breathable?

Again, generally no. Being a synthetic, petroleum-based material, polyester fibers don’t allow air to pass through them. However, a loosely woven polyester fabric may allow for some air flow.

What Does Polyester Feel Like?

This depends on several things: the type of yarn with which the fabric was created, any processing that the fibers have undergone, and whether the polyester fibers have been blended with other types of fibers.

100 percent polyester has a scratchy, plasticky feel to it. It’s also very stretchy, and not very breathable. Polyester blends may have softer, smoother textures.

Why Has Polyester Become So Popular?

Polyester is everywhere — and for good reason? Why, you might ask. Let us tell you.


Is there any other single material that can comprise your gym bottle, the uppers of your athletic shoes, the carpet beneath your workout equipment, and the clothing on your body? Polyesters are incredibly versatile. It would be fair to say that life as we know it would hardly be the same without the different types of polyester.

Shrink Resistant

Polyester fabric is incredibly shrink resistant. Although high heat can melt 100 percent polyester, it’s safe to throw it into the washing machine. Its shrink resistance is one of the main reasons cotton/polyester blends are so popular for t-shirts and other garments.

Wrinkle Resistant

One of the reasons polyester clothing is so popular is that you don’t have to iron it. That saves both time and effort.

Abrasion Resistant

Polyester fabric resists damage caused by abrasion. Special treatments can also make it resist pilling.


Not only does polyester hold its shape, but if you stretch it, it will snap back into that shape immediately.

Easy to Wash and Dry

There are fewer fabrics more easy to care for than stain-resistant, wrinkle-resistant, machine washable, quick-drying polyester.

Moisture Wicking

Polyester fabric isn’t waterproof, but it’s not absorbent, either. It will wick moisture from the skin and dissipate it outside of your garment.


Although polyester isn’t particularly breathable, it can provide an excellent barrier against wind, and traps heat next to your skin. This makes it an excellent material for windbreakers and outerwear.

How Easy Is Polyester to Work With?

Once again, this depends upon how the fibers have been treated, spun, and blended. Do you want to know how to sew polyester? Then there are a few tips and tricks that you’ll need to know. 

Pre-Treat Your Polyester

Wash your polyester in cold water and press it with low heat before laying out your pattern. Pre-treating your fabric in this way will remove any excess coatings or dyes that might interfere with your sewing.

Layout is Important

It’s important to pay attention to the direction of your fabric’s stretch when laying out your pattern pieces. Make sure your pattern is designed for stretch fabrics. Follow the pattern directions when it comes to layout and cutting. 

The Right Thread

Always match synthetic fabrics with synthetic thread. Polyester thread will stretch with your polyester fabric. This will prevent both puckering and thread breakage.

The Right Needle

For any project, start with a new needle. Also, use a ballpoint needle labeled for stretch fabrics, and match the weight rating of your needle to the weight of your fabric. Check out our article on needle selection for more information.

The Right Stitch

For sewing polyester, use a zigzag or stretch stitch. For best results, use a stitch length of between 0.5 millimeters to 1.5 millimeters (0.020 inches to 0.059 inches).

Stabilize if Necessary

Polyester fabric, particularly polyester satin, can be slippery. Sew a test swatch. If your polyester slips and slides around beneath the needle, you may want to pin it to tissue paper in order to stabilize it.

Are There Downsides to Polyester?

The most significant downsides of polyester are environmental. Polyester is a petroleum product. As such, it relies on the production of fossil fuels. Also, although polyester is recyclable, it’s not biodegradable. This means that our polyester products will be with us for a very, very long time.

Fossil Fuel Derived

Two of polyester’s main ingredients are coal and petroleum. In fact, polyester can consist of up to 60 percent petroleum. Why is this a problem? [7]

First, the extraction of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum is highly polluting. Extraction releases the greenhouse gas methane, which is 20 times more destructive than CO2. In addition, oil spills pollute both land and water. Fossil fuel extraction also disrupts wildlife and leads to biodiversity loss. [8]


The production of polyester requires the use of heavy chemicals. In polyester-producing countries with lax environmental laws, these chemicals are often discharged into the environment, polluting air, land, and water.

On top of that, washing polyester releases microfibers into wastewater. The wastewater then makes its way into lakes, oceans, and rivers, where it devastates plant and animal life. These microfibers comprise more than one third of the ocean’s plastic pollution. [9]

Is Polyester Biodegradable?

No. However, polyester products can easily be recycled into other polyester products.

Is Polyester Toxic?

Many of the chemicals used to produce polyester are toxic. Polyester fibers and the processes that lead to them are definitely toxic to the environment. 

While it goes without saying that you probably shouldn’t eat it, there’s little evidence that wearing polyester will harm you.

polyester yarn on weaving machine

Natural Alternatives to Polyester

The good news is, there are natural alternatives to polyester. The bad news is, they’re often more expensive. And, quite frankly, some fabrics are less fit for certain purposes.


When it comes to polyester vs. cotton, there are a few similarities:

  • Cotton and polyester are both durable
  • Both cotton and polyester are hypoallergenic
  • Polyester and cotton are both recyclable
  • Both fabrics are moisture wicking

But there are also some significant differences when it comes to cotton vs. polyester:

  • Cotton is natural, while polyester is synthetic
  • Polyester is insulating; cotton is breathable
  • Cotton is absorbent; polyester repels moisture
  • Polyester is stretchy; cotton is not
  • Cotton wrinkles easily; polyester is wrinkle resistant
  • Polyester is more resilient than cotton
  • Cotton shrinks easily, while polyester is shrink resistant
  • Polyester is not biodegradable; cotton is
  • Cotton is less weather resistant than polyester

Manufacturers love to pair these two fabrics. This is because they’re very different. At the same time, when blended, polyester and cotton provide some of the best qualities of both.


Linen is a fabric woven from flax fibers. It’s one of the oldest fabrics, and has been traced back to hunter-gatherer times. [10]

Linen is durable and thick, so, like polyester, it’s suitable for a variety of clothing and housewares applications. It’s also breathable and excellent for hot weather use. It’s also absorbent, heat-conducting, quick-drying and hypoallergenic like polyester.

At the same time, linen can be quite expensive. It’s also very prone to wrinkling, staining, and shrinking. And linen has no natural stretch, which may or may not be an advantage, depending on your project.


Some polyester fabrics are marketed as silk alternatives. Silk, therefore, is another natural alternative to polyester. For lingerie, blouses, and bedding, you can’t get much more luxurious than silk.

The downside, however, is that silk can be prohibitively expensive. It’s also generally not machine washable like polyester. Silk is also delicate and very vulnerable to wrinkling.

Polyester vs. Lyocell

You might see Lyocell marketed as a natural alternative to polyester. It is and it isn’t.

Lyocell is a type of rayon that’s derived from wood cellulose. It’s not a natural fabric, though. Technically it’s a semi-synthetic. That is, it’s derived from a natural product, but undergoes heavy chemical processing in order to produce its fibers. 

Some of the advantages of Lyocell include:

  • It’s naturally biodegradable
  • The cellulose comes from trees farmed without pesticides or irrigation
  • The solvents used in production are recycled
  • Production uses less water and energy than polyester production

Lyocell can be slightly more expensive than polyester, but it’s definitely less expensive than linen and silk. [11]

Polyester: Love It or Hate It?

Polyester is one of the most versatile and widely used materials today. In addition to its ubiquity in clothing manufacture, you’ll find polyester in medical supplies, electronics, and numerous machine and industrial applications.

Polyester fabric is easy to care for and relatively easy to sew. When combined with other fibers, such as cotton and wool, polyester adds strength, stretch, and wrinkle resistance.

At the same time, polyester production is resource-intensive and highly polluting. It depends upon fossil fuel extraction for its core ingredients. On top of that, it’s a prodigious source of plastic pollution.

Do polyester’s uses and benefits outweigh the environmental devastation to which it contributes? This is a question every sewist must answer for themselves.

how to sew polyester


  1. Biology Online | Cutin | https://www.biologyonline.com/dictionary/cutin
  2. Diffen Authors | Nylon vs. Polyester | https://www.diffen.com/difference/Nylon_vs_Polyester
  3. Alina Bradford | What Is a Polymer? | https://www.livescience.com/60682-polymers.html
  4. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Polyamide | https://www.britannica.com/science/polyamide
  5. Collins Dictionary | Amide | https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/amide
  6. Rilon | What Is the Difference Between Filament and Staple Fibers? | https://rilonfibers.com/blog/difference-between-filament-and-staple-fibers
  7. Sarah Young | The real cost of your clothes: These are the fabrics with the best and worst environmental impact | https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/fabrics-environment-fast-fashion-eco-friendly-pollution-waste-polyester-cotton-fur-recycle-a8963921.html
  8. ResearchGate | Which is more potent on Global Warming, CO2 or CH4? Why do we relate Global Warming to CO2? | https://www.researchgate.net/post/Which_is_more_potent_on_Global_Warming_CO2_or_CH4_Why_do_we_relate_Global_Warming_to_CO2
  9. Ocean Clean Wash | What are microfibers? |https://www.oceancleanwash.org/the-issue/
  10. Kvavadze, Eliso, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta Boaretto, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani | 30,000 Years old wild flax fibers – Testimony for fabricating prehistoric linen | https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4270521
  11. Lyocell | The lyocell, An Environmentally Sustainable Fiber | https://lyocell.info/

What Is Satin Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is satin

We know satin by its sheen. It’s a fancy, flamboyant fabric that’s a favorite for costumes and formal wear. But what is satin made of? What gives it its unique appearance? Is it easy to work with? Grab your measuring tape. We’re going to tell you all about it.

What is Satin Made Of?

woman in satin dress

Fabric naming conventions can be frustrating. Some fabrics, like cotton, take their names from the fibers used to create them. Others, like viscose, are named for a process. Linen and twill are named for the way their fibers are arranged during weaving. And satin? What is satin fabric?

Satin, like linen and twill, is a type of weave. Satin weave is one of the fundamental weave types. Satin weave means an alternating pattern of four or more weft yarns over one warp yarn, followed by one weft yarn floating over four or more warp yarns. It looks like this:


This pattern produces satin’s unmistakable appearance: one side that’s very smooth and shiny, and the other side, which is dull.

There are different variations on the satin weave pattern, including four-harness, five-harness, and eight-harness satin. These refer to the number of fill (or weft) yarns that float over the warp: four, five, and eight, respectively.

You can weave just about any fiber using the satin weave pattern. However, it’s only true satin if those fibers are continuous filament fibers, such as silk, polyester, or nylon. 

Some consider only silk satin to be “true” satin. However, you’ll find fabrics labeled as satin that are made from other continuous filament fibers, as well.

Characteristics of Satin

teal satin

The first thing that may come to your mind is that satin is shiny. But there’s more to it than that. 


Satin’s unique weave means that it drapes beautifully, skimming the body in all the right ways. This is why it’s a favorite for bridal dresses, prom dresses, and other formal gowns.


Some types of fabric have a gorgeous drape, but don’t hold a shape well. As a result, they’re not appropriate for structured garments. Satin, on the other hand, is the best of both worlds. It can be used for both flowing and structured parts of garments.


Satin may be beautiful, but its tight weave and long filaments also make it tough.


Thicker satin fabrics are quite wrinkle resistant. Even lighter satins are less prone to wrinkling than some other fabrics.

Prone to Snagging

Unfortunately the weave type makes satin prone to snagging. Threads can get caught easily, and once a snag happens, it can ruin the entire garment.

Challenging to Work With

Because satin is so slippery, sewing satin can be very difficult indeed.

What’s the Difference Between Satin and Sateen?

So, if continuous filament fibers woven in the satin pattern make satin, what do you call satin-weave fabric made from other fibers?

We’re glad you asked that.

Short staple spun fibers like cotton, when woven in the satin pattern, produce a slightly different fabric called sateen. The weave gives sateen the same characteristics: smooth and shiny on one side and dull on the other. But the fiber length and content makes the final fabric slightly different. [1]

Manufacturers may process sateen fabric in different ways to make it resemble satin more closely. They may mercerize it, for example, bathing it in a caustic substance to increase sheen and strength. They may also calender the fabric. Calendering means pressing the fabric between high-pressure rollers at a high temperature. [2, 3]

Satin vs. Sateen

Satin and sateen may look similar, and may involve similar processes, but there are a few important differences.

  • Satin’s fiber content often makes it more expensive than sateen.
  • Satin tends to be shinier than sateen.
  • Sateen, being made most often from cotton, is more breathable than satin.
  • Sateen is machine washable; satin is not.
  • Sateen can be more easily bleached, printed, and dyed.
  • Sateen is also generally easier to work with.

Silk vs. Satin

What is the difference between silk and satin?

Silk and satin are both luxury fabrics. They’re both soft to the touch, and both can be pricey. But there are some important differences.

First and most importantly, silk is a fiber spun by silkworms, to form their cocoons. Satin, as you now know, is a weave type

Silk fibers can be woven using the satin weave. In fact, many purists will only recognize satin woven from silk fibers as actual satin. But for most of us, the definition of satin also includes other fabrics woven from continuous filament fibers. And, of course, silk fibers can be woven into different fabrics, using a variety of weave types.

Are There Different Types of Satin?

satin pink

Absolutely. Let’s break it down.

By Fiber Content

As we said, most people define satin fabric as fabric made from continuous filament fibers such as silk, polyester, and nylon, woven using a satin weave technique. You might also encounter these terms.

Baronet Satin

Baronet satin is an extremely lustrous and luxurious type of satin. It uses rayon filaments for its warp threads, and cotton fibers for its weft threads.


Polysatin is another name for satin woven from polyester filaments.

By Weave Type

As we mentioned, there are different types of satin weave.

Four-harness satin weave is made by floating four weft threads over a single warp thread, as in this illustration.

Five-harness satin weave floats five weft threads over a single warp thread.

Eight-harness satin weave, as you might guess, has eight weft threads floating over the warp thread.

By Weight

Some varieties of satin distinguish themselves by their weight.

Charmeuse Satin

Charmeuse satin is extremely lightweight. It’s a favorite for lingerie and blouses. Generally charmeuse is made from silk or polyester fibers. The weave is also slightly different. Instead of multiple weft fibers floating over a warp, charmeuse is woven by floating four warp fibers over a single weft fiber.


Messaline is another lightweight satin. It’s also very, very shiny. Generally messaline is woven from rayon or silk filaments.

Slipper Satin

Slipper satin is a medium weight fabric. As the name suggests, its primary use is shoes and slippers, though you’ll also find it in clothing and accessories.

Duchess Satin

On the opposite end of the spectrum, duchess satin is a heavy, stiff fabric. It’s generally less shiny than standard satin, and comes in solid colors. 

How Easy is Satin to Sew?

red satin fabric

Yes, well, that’s the problem, isn’t it? Unfortunately, this elegant, durable, wonderfully draping fabric happens to be extremely difficult to sew. This is because the quality that we love so much — that sheen — also makes satin very, very slippery. Fortunately there are some tips and tricks that can make sewing satin a bit easier.

How to Sew Satin

It may seem daunting, but if you follow a few simple rules, it’s not that hard. You might consider making a muslin (also called a toile) — that is, a practice garment out of cheaper fabric, to work out the bugs before diving right in with your expensive satin.

Once you have the details sorted…

Mind the Grain

When laying out your pattern pieces, be super careful of the grain of your satin. It matters! Why? Because the light will hit your fabric differently, depending on how you cut it. If pieces are cut with the grain going in different directions, the color will be inconsistent across the garment, and it will ruin the garment’s appearance.

So, if you’re cutting your pieces on the bias, cut them all on the bias. If you’re cutting pieces on the straight grain, cut them all on the straight grain.

Careful With the Pins

Pins will leave large, visible holes in satin. So only pin within the seam allowance.


Pin tracing paper to the bottom of your fabric before you cut your pieces. This will keep your slippery satin in place while you cut. When you do cut, cut the tracing paper, too.

Mark Carefully

Mark with tailor’s chalk rather than a washable marker. Satin isn’t machine washable, remember? Also, try to avoid marking on the right side of the fabric.

Cut and Rest

Because satin likes to slide about, only cut in single layers, or you will end up with different sized pieces, no matter how careful you are. Also, use sharp scissors.

Allow your pattern pieces to “rest” into place after cutting.

A Generous Seam Allowance

Satin is prone to fraying, unfortunately. Using a wide seam allowance will allow you to trim away frayed edges. It will also help to keep your seam edges from being chewed up by your sewing machine.

Start Off on the Right Foot

A walking foot is a big help when sewing slippery fabrics. It can help your layers to stay together while moving through the machine. It can also help to reduce the chance of puckering around the stitches.

Choose the Right Needle

Selecting the right needle is essential. Use a new, very sharp needle to avoid snagging. Also, change your needle frequently.

And the Right Thread

Use natural thread when sewing with natural fibers, and synthetic thread when sewing with synthetic fabrics.


For an extra measure of protection, hand-baste your seams before sewing them. This will give you another chance to get everything just right before committing to the final sew.

Mind the Tension

Too much tension is bad for you…and for your project! But increasing and decreasing tension in the right places can increase your chances for success.

First, lower the tension of your upper thread. Next, increase the tension of the fabric itself by holding it taut as it moves through the machine.


Speaking of stitching, use short stitches to minimize slipping and movement. Also consider stabilizing your fabric by using a soft stabilizer on the seam allowance and stitch line. Alternatively, you could use paper to stabilize the fabric, then tear it away when you’re finished.

Finish Your Seams

Remember how satin likes to fray? Finishing your seams can help. 

Pinking your edges with pinking shears can make them less vulnerable to fraying.

You could also finish with a zigzag stitch or by serging off your seam edges.

Whew! That sounds like a lot of work! It certainly can be. On the other hand, if you do it right, there’s nothing, nothing like an elegant satin item.

How to Care for Satin Fabric

For such a durable, wrinkle resistant fabric, satin needs a lot of special care. Most types are not machine washable. Satin is subject to snagging and fraying. And heat and water damage can be a huge problem.

But there are ways to keep your satin looking its best.

How to Wash Satin

First and foremostly, always follow the manufacturer’s care instructions. If the label says “dry clean only,” then to the dry cleaner that item goes.

Many types of satin are not machine washable. But if yours is, then wash it in cold water and on the delicate cycle. You can also hand wash your satin in cold water. Be sure to use a detergent that’s specially made for delicate fabrics.

Please note: by “hand washing,” we mean soaking, not scrubbing. Let your satin soak in the sudsy water for three to five minutes, then rinse with cool, clean water.

How to Dry Satin

For the love of fabric, don’t twist, wring, squeeze, or (horror!) toss it in the dryer!

Instead, use the “jelly roll” method.

First, lay down a thick, clean, dry towel. 

Next, lay your item flat on the towel.

Now, roll the towel up like a roulade.

Finally (and gently!) squeeze out the excess moisture. 

Lay it flat on another clean, dry towel to dry out.

How to Iron Satin

Ironing satin presents two concerns: water damage and heat damage.

Have you ever seen water-damaged satin? Believe me, you don’t want to. So to avoid this while ironing, do not use the steam setting.

Also, use the heat setting appropriate to the fiber content. So, for silk satin, use the silk setting. For nylon, rayon, or polyester satins, use the lower, synthetic setting.

Also, for an added measure of protection, press on the wrong side of the fabric whenever possible.

Getting Started With Satin

The term satin describes a variety of fabrics woven from continuous filament fibers, using one of the satin weave techniques. It may be a synthetic fabric or a natural fiber fabric. Fabric woven with a satin technique but made from a short-staple fiber like cotton is called sateen.

Sewing with satin (and caring for it afterward) can be a lot of work. On the other hand, if you do it right, the rewards will be more than worth it.

Do you enjoy working with satin? Do you have any impressive successes (or disasters!) that you’d like to share with our readers? We’d love to hear about it in the comments!

how to sew satin fabric


  1. Rilon | What Is the Difference Between Filament and Staple Fibers? | https://rilonfibers.com/blog/difference-between-filament-and-staple-fibers
  2. Various | Mercerization | https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/mercerization
  3. Mazharul Islam Kiron | Introduction of Calendering Finishing – Working Process of Calendering Finishing | https://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/02/introduction-of-calendering-finishing.html

What Is Canvas Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is canvas like to sew

Canvas is everywhere. Heavy duty canvas fabric is a traditional staple of outerwear and outdoors equipment, while lighter weight versions are popular for clothing and bags. Versatile, hard-wearing, and incredibly easy to work with, it’s no wonder canvas fabric has become part of the fabric of our lives.

What is Canvas Fabric Made of?

The name “canvas” refers to a variety of durable, heavyweight, natural woven fabrics.

Historically, canvas was made from hemp fibers. Today, you’ll find canvas made from not just hemp, but also cotton or flax fibers. Today’s manufacturers may also add a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating for weather proofing. You may also find waxed canvas fabric.

Canvas is a woven fabric that’s produced using a plain weave, like linen, which is portrayed in the image below:

thread crossing pattern plain weave fabric

There are numerous variations on the arrangement of fibers within the weave. These variations affect the weight and refinement of different canvas fabrics. We’ll discuss these in greater detail below.

How is Canvas Fabric Used?

Unsurprisingly, a material that is easy to make, easy to work with, sustainable, and incredibly durable will find myriad uses. Here are just a few ways we use canvas.


womens waxed canvas jacket

Natural, sustainable cotton canvas fabric is also breathable and weather-resistant. Although it might not be the first fabric that springs to mind when you think of clothing, it excels in certain kinds of apparel, particularly hats and outerwear.

Waxed canvas coats and jackets are the original waterproofs, and they’re a staple of country life today. Canvas shirts and trousers also make durable, comfortable, and even fashionable choices for workwear and outdoor casual wear.

Canvas is also a fashionable choice for belts, hats, and watch bands.


keds canvas shoes

Before synthetic materials became widespread in shoe construction, canvas was the go-to alternative to leather. Because it’s so durable, you’ll still find it in use today in shoes and boots. 

Timeless Keds sneakers are made from canvas. But canvas isn’t just for delicate types of shoes. It’s rugged enough for outdoors boots, as well. 

Bags and Luggage

canvas handbag

From duffel bags to handbags to backpacks, heavy-duty canvas is an excellent choice for hauling your stuff.


canvas furniture

Canvas upholstery fabric is durable and fashionable. Because cotton canvas takes dye well, you’ll find it in a variety of colors and patterns. Waxed or coated outdoor canvas fabric makes an excellent choice for patio furniture.

Sports Equipment

canvas martial arts uniform

Canvas fabric, especially waterproof canvas fabric, has long been the first choice for a wide variety of sports equipment, including:

  • Punching bags
  • Martial arts uniforms
  • Canoes
  • Tents
  • Gear bags
  • Vehicle covers
  • Tarpaulins
  • Sails

And more.

Painting Surfaces

art canvas

Since the 17th century, canvas has been the favorite painting surface for painters worldwide. Today, many of us will call any stretched fabric painting surface a “canvas,” regardless of what the fabric actually is.

The Pros and Cons of Canvas

We love canvas. But that doesn’t mean it’s perfect for every application. Here are the ups and downs of it.

Advantages of Canvas

What’s so great about canvas? Here are a few things.


Canvas’s tight weave makes it incredibly hard-wearing. This, in turn, makes canvas an outstanding material for tents, bags, shoes, upholstery, and other heavy duty applications.

Easy to Work With

Sewing canvas is easy, thanks to its tight weave. The weave makes canvas fray resistant and means that it will hold its shape well.


Canvas is made from natural fibers. This means that it’s more sustainable and less polluting than synthetic alternatives.


Canvas’s natural fiber content, along with its plain weave, makes it a breathable fabric.

Water and Wind Resistant

At the same time, canvas’s tight weave makes it naturally wind-resistant. In addition, when it gets wet, the fibers swell in order to seal the fabric against the moisture. Manufacturers can augment this natural water resistance with a variety of coatings, including wax and polyvinyl chloride.

Takes and Retains Dye Well

Canvas cotton fabric takes and retains color very well (linen canvas to a lesser degree). This means your cotton canvas items will stay looking sharp for a long time to come.

Disadvantages of Canvas

Some of the qualities that make canvas so excellent for some applications may make it unsuitable for others. 


Heavier canvas, especially double-fill duck, has a very rough texture. This texture is generally too rough for clothing applications, save for outerwear.

Heavy and Bulky

Canvas can also be very heavy and bulky. Although canvas tents, for example, provide excellent protection against the elements, they’re a lot more difficult to pack in and out. This is why synthetic tents are so much more popular.

Doesn’t Drape Well

Canvas fabric tends to be stiff. This means it holds its shape well — a bit too well to provide an attractive drape.

Prone to Shrinkage

Like many natural fiber fabrics, canvas is prone to shrinking. In fact, canvas can shrink between 10 and 15 percent.

Canvas vs. Duck: What’s the Difference?

You might hear the two words used interchangeably. There is a difference, though. Granted, that difference can be subtle.

Duck is a type of cotton canvas fabric. “Cotton duck” is an industry term. Most consumers would call it simply cotton canvas. Duck tends to be a medium weight fabric, while other types of canvas are medium to heavy weight fabrics.

There are two different kinds of duck: single fill and double fill. The distinction comes down to the thread count.

Single fill duck has one weft strand for every warp strand. This makes it finer than double fill duck. Double fill duck has two weft strands for every warp. This makes it thicker, heavier, and more textured.

Manufacturers grade duck two ways. They identify single-fill duck in terms of weight, that is, ounces per square yard. Double-fill duck is graded on a numerical scale from one to 12, with #1 being the heaviest and #12 being the lightest weight duck.

Single fill duck lends itself to lighter projects such as:

  • Table cloths
  • Seat covers
  • Outerwear
  • Uniforms

Double fill duck is useful for applications like:

  • Tarps 
  • Floor cloths
  • Tents
  • Boat covers
  • Painting surfaces

There are many different kinds of canvas duck, including:

Army Cotton Duck Cloth

This is a versatile double filled type of duck commonly used for tents and similar applications.

Belting Cotton Duck

As the name suggests, this thick variety of cotton duck is used in the manufacture of machinery belts. It’s made from plied, filled yarn. 

Hose Cotton Duck

Before synthetic materials became the most popular material for garden hoses, manufacturers used this thick, waterproof type of canvas.

Boot Cotton Duck

This tough fabric is made from plied, filled yarn. Both water resistant and pliable, it’s excellent for making the uppers of boots.

Biscuit Cotton Duck

This is an ultra-heavyweight cotton duck with a variety of uses, including curtains and upholstery.

Chafer Cotton Duck

Chafer cotton duck is a lightweight duck canvas that’s great for handbags, mattress covers, and linings.

Enameling Cotton Duck

This is a delicate duck canvas. It comes in single fill and double fill varieties. You’ll find it in a range of products, from book binding to aprons and footwear, and even some industrial applications.

Flat Cotton Duck

Flat cotton duck also comes in single and double fill varieties. Most commonly you’ll find it in paint canvases, but it has a wide variety of uses.

Shelter Tent Cotton Duck

As the name suggests, this extremely thick, durable duck appears in tent construction. Double weft and warp strands make it super tough, and an excellent choice for vehicle covers and bedrolls, too.

Paper Felt Cotton Duck

This type of duck has a very specific application: for conveyor aprons in paper-making equipment.

Press Cotton Duck

Press cotton duck is a heavyweight duck made with a loose, even weave. It’s incredibly strong, as it should be for its traditional use: straining cider in a cider press.

How Easy is Canvas to Sew? 

canvas luggage

Do you want to know how to sew canvas? Working with canvas isn’t hard…in theory. 

Canvas’s tight weave means that the fabric holds its shape well, unlike some other types of fabric (ahem, chiffon). You won’t have to use a stabilizer for cutting or sewing, either. And canvas is also delightfully fray-resistant.

However, working with a heavier fabric like canvas requires some special techniques and equipment. 

A Heavy Duty Sewing Machine

There’s a difference between a regular sewing machine and a machine designed for sewing heavy fabrics. Your everyday sewing machine will probably do just fine with single layers of lightweight canvas. However, if you’re working with thicker canvas or multiple layers, then you may need a stronger machine.

A heavy duty sewing machine has a sturdy metal internal frame. It may even have all-metal construction. Some may also have an external servo motor to power through heavy work. 

You don’t need a heavy-duty sewing machine for most projects. But if you’re going to be sewing sails, tents, boat covers, or similar items, it’s definitely something to consider.


Most natural fabrics are subject to shrinkage. So pre-wash your canvas before sewing to avoid problems.

Choose the Right Thread

A heavy fabric needs a heavyweight thread. Choose a size 40 heavy duty thread. Also, always match natural fabrics with natural fiber threads.

The Needle Matters

The correct needle can mean the difference between success and failure for your project. When sewing canvas, use a denim-gauge needle, that is, a needle size 90/16 or 100/16.


Sew with a straight stitch of length 3.0 to 3.5.

Getting Off on the Right Foot

A heavier-weight overlock sewing foot can handle thick fabrics like denim with ease.

Waterproofing Canvas Fabric

Canvas is naturally water-resistant. In addition, some manufacturers will augment that water resistance with wax, polyvinyl chloride, or other coatings.

But what if you want to waterproof your canvas fabric yourself?

There are numerous high quality fabric waterproofing sprays on the market. Purchase one that’s specifically made for canvas and rated for marine waterproofing. Be sure to test your spray on a small piece of fabric first, and always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

Versatile, Durable Canvas

The term “canvas” covers a variety of fabrics with different weights, textures, and uses. What unites them is this: they are all made from cotton, hemp or flax fibers, and woven in a plain weave.

Canvas fabrics are durable, breathable, and wind and water resistant. Most types hold dye well, and they’re easy to work with.

You’ll find canvas in a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including clothing, shoes, outerwear, sports equipment, and industrial belts.

Do you have a favorite project using canvas? We’d love to hear about it!

sewing with canvas

What Is Jersey Fabric And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is jersey fabric

What is jersey fabric, anyway? Is it what athletic jerseys are made from? Yes, but the name goes back a lot farther than that. Modern jersey fabric is one of the most loved and most used clothing fabrics on the market. It’s also great for a variety of projects. Want to know more? Check it out.

What is Jersey Fabric?

jersey fabric close up

Jersey fabric is a knit fabric that’s used primarily in garments. The name has a complicated history. You’ve probably heard of sports jerseys — that is, knit tops that some athletes wear. No doubt you’ve also heard of the isle of Jersey in the Channel Islands. So, how does the fabric name fit in?

The name actually comes from the island, where people first produced the fabric in the Middle Ages. At that time, manufacturers made jersey fabric from wool. They used it exclusively for making underwear and men’s clothing. But jersey fabric had a larger destiny to fill.

In 1916 revolutionary designer Coco Chanel introduced jersey to women’s wear. She used it to create attractive, and, most importantly, comfortable coats and dresses for women. Since then, the fabric has only increased in popularity. [1]

You might know modern jersey fabric by another name: t-shirt material. But t-shirts are only part of the story. Today’s jersey is made from a variety of fibers. The most common is a combination of cotton and a synthetic fabric like polyester. Today you’ll find jersey in an extensive range of garments, housewares, and other items.

There are two primary types of jersey fabric, as well as a few subtypes. We’ll have a look at these below.

The Two Main Types of Jersey Fabric

Modern jersey fabric comes in two types: standard and double knit.

Standard jersey, sometimes called single knit or plain knit, is smooth on one side and piled, or textured, on the other. The texture comes from a raised nap, that is, raised loops of thread, like the pile of a carpet. Standard jersey is made using one set of needles, as in the video below.

Double knit jersey is smooth on both sides, and thicker. This is because double knit jersey is two pieces of standard jersey knit together, with the pile on the inside. Double knit jersey is also called interlock because of the interlocking loops on the inside. Double knit jersey is created with two sets of needles: one to knit the layers, and another to knit them together.

The different types have different purposes. You’ll find standard jersey in athletic and athleisure wear, t-shirts, underwear, and bedding. Double knit jersey is more stable and less stretchy than standard jersey. This makes it better for more structured garments, like blazers, coats, and trousers.

You may also encounter a few subtypes of jersey fabric.

Jacquard jersey is a patterned double knit jersey fabric with designs woven in different colours using the jacquard technique. [2]

Cloque jersey is a textured jersey fabric, with a specific design, such as cabling, knit into the fabric.

A wide range of fibers can be used to make jersey, including:

  • Wool
  • Cotton
  • Polyester
  • Hemp
  • Silk
  • Spandex
  • Modal
  • Rayon
  • Viscose
  • And more

Common Uses for Jersey Fabric

man dancing in yellow jersey fabric sweatshirt

Jersey is an incredibly versatile fabric. You’ll find it in a huge variety of products. You’ll probably recognize most of them, but some of them may surprise you.

Single Knit Jersey

Single knit jersey is a light, stretchy, absorbent material that you’ll find most often in garments. It drapes nicely, so it’s popular for women’s tops and dresses. You will also find it in light housewares. Here are some of the more common uses.

  • T-shirts
  • Sweatshirts and sweatpants
  • Dresses
  • Women’s tops
  • Leggings
  • Underwear
  • Spring and summer sports uniforms, especially tops
  • Sheets and bedding

Double Knit Jersey

Double knit jersey is also popular for garments. But because of its greater weight and firmer structure, you’ll find it in different types of garments and products. These include:

  • Blazers
  • Jackets
  • Trousers
  • Polo shirts

Jersey Fabric Characteristics

jersey fabric sweatshirt

What does jersey feel like? Is jersey fabric stretchy? And is jersey fabric good for summer? Once you’ve felt that jersey fabric texture, it’s hard to forget it. 


All jersey fabric is smooth. Single knit jersey is smooth on one side and piled on the other. Double knit jersey is smooth on both sides.


Jersey is soft and comfortable.

Piled on One Side

Single knit jersey is piled on one side. This can make one size fuzzy, like the inside of a sweatshirt.


Jersey fabric is a knit fabric, which means that all varieties have some stretch. The amount of stretch depends upon the fiber content. Cotton jersey fabric will have less stretch than cotton mixed with synthetic fibers. Double knit jersey is also less stretchy than standard jersey.


Jersey fabric is opaque. That is, you can’t see through it. A single knit jersey made from fine fibers will allow some light through, however.


Jersey fabric tends to be highly absorbent, which makes it excellent for athletic wear. This quality, too, depends upon the fiber content.

Range of Firmness

Jersey fabric is soft and stretchy. However, double knit jersey has a firmer shape than single knit, and is better suited to structured types of garments. Fiber content will affect firmness as well.

The Pros and Cons of Jersey Fabric 

woman wearing jersey sweatshirt

What’s so great about jersey? A lot of things! But it’s not perfect for every project, and sewing jersey fabric can present some challenges. Let’s have a look.

Advantages of Jersey

Here are some of the reasons people love to wear and work with jersey:

Versatile ????????

Jersey fabric is incredibly versatile. Its unique qualities lend themselves to a wide range of applications, from garments to crafts to housewares and beyond.

Soft ????????

Coco Chanel was really on to something when she introduced jersey fabric to women’s fashion. Jersey fabric is so soft and wearable. Once you put it on, you might wonder why you’d ever want to take it off.

Absorbent ????????

The pile on the reverse side of jersey fabric (or on the inside of double knit jersey) makes it highly absorbent. This is why it’s such an excellent material for athletic wear — and also why, when you’re finished with a jersey garment, it recycles so well into cleaning rags.

Stretchy ????????

Jersey’s built-in stretch means that the fabric moves with you, cradling, rather than restricting your body. Another reason it works so well for casual and athleisure wear.

Drapes Well ????????

Lighter weight jersey drapes beautifully and skims the figure, making it a natural for women’s tops and dresses.

Wrinkle Resistant ????????

Many types of jersey are wrinkle resistant, especially if the fiber content includes synthetic fibers.

Durable ????????

Many types of jersey are hard-wearing, which is yet another reason that this fabric is well suited to athletic wear.

Comfortable ????????

Is it any wonder that t-shirts are many people’s weekend uniform? Not a lot of fabrics can boast the all-day comfort of jersey.

Easy to Care For ????????

Most jersey garments are super easy to care for. Just pop them in the wash and go.

Disadvantages of Jersey

Are there any disadvantages to such a versatile and useful fabric? Not many. Still, they can make a difference to your project:

It Can be Tricky to Sew ????????

Because it’s a knit fabric, jersey has a stretch. And stretchy fabrics can be tricky to sew. Make sure to check out our tips and tricks for working with jersey, in order to make the most of your project.

Prone to Pilling ????????

Abrasion can cause little balls of fiber, or “pills” to form on the surface of jersey. This can make your garment start to look shabby after a while.

Holes, Snags, and Runs ????????

Jersey is also susceptible to holes, snags, and runs, which can easily ruin the look of a garment.

Not Ideal for All Types of Garments ????????

Jersey tends to work best for items that drape and skim the figure, or which are made to move with you. Double knit jersey fabric can be used for more structured garments, but single knit doesn’t hold its shape well enough to be used for rigid items.

How to Sew Jersey Fabric

Is jersey fabric easy to sew? There’s the rub, or so to speak. Like any knit fabric, jersey can fray easily, and many types don’t hold their shape well. But don’t worry! There are tips and tricks for working with jersey. 

Use a Fabric Stabilizer

If you’re using a lighter jersey type and worried that it might not hold its shape while you sew, try stabilising it.

For washable fabrics, you can use a spray-on fabric stabilizer. You could also use a wash-away stabilizer, a tear-away stabilizer or tissue paper. 

Choose the Right Needle

Yes, choosing the correct needle can make a world of difference to any sewing project. For knits like jersey fabric, choose a ballpoint needle. This comparatively blunt needle can pass through knit fabrics like jersey without damaging them. 

Use the Right Thread

Stretchy fabrics need a thread that also has a bit of stretch. That means polyester thread rather than 100 percent cotton thread. Polyester thread will stretch with your jersey fabric, rather than puckering it.

Sew With a Walking Foot

Quilters may already be familiar with the walking foot, which enables layers of fabric to stay in place as they travel through the sewing machine. But a walking foot can also help with sewing stretchy fabrics like jersey. A walking foot helps your fabric to move through the sewing machine evenly so that you don’t get randomly stretched-out spots in your sewing.

Use Zigzag Stitch

The zigzag stitch on your sewing machine is made for sewing stretchy knits like jersey. If you use a straight stitch, the fabric may stretch while the stitches remain straight. This will cause puckering and possibly even ripped stitches. Using a zigzag stitch will keep your stitches even.

A Twin Needle for Hems

When hemming your jersey, a twin needle can accommodate the stretch in a fabric. It also gives it a pretty, professional-looking finish. 

Looking After Jersey Fabric

Fortunately, most jersey fabric is pretty easy to care for. Here’s how.

Follow the Care Instructions

With any garment or fabric, it’s important to follow the manufacturer’s care instructions. This is especially true for fabrics like jersey, which come in many different varieties, each of which may require a slightly different type of care.

Be Mindful of Fiber Content

The fiber content of various jersey fabrics can differ, from cotton jersey fabric to wool to synthetics and synthetic blends. Check the fiber content of your fabric or garment carefully and wash it accordingly.


Some jersey types, especially cotton, are prone to shrinkage. To be safe, pre-wash your jersey fabric before sewing with it.

Machine Wash

Many types of jersey fabric are machine washable. Always check the care instructions first, though. Failing this, it’s generally safe to machine wash your jersey fabric in cool water and tumble it dry.


Because jersey is wrinkle-resistant, you often don’t have to iron it if you remove it from the dryer right away. If you do want to iron it, make sure to use the proper setting for your fabric’s fiber content. [3]

Wonderful Jersey

Jersey is an incredibly versatile fabric with a wide range of applications. Soft, absorbent, breathable, and stretchy, jersey is at the heart of many of our favorite garment types.

Although it’s easy to care for, jersey, like most knit fabrics, can be challenging to work with. But you can meet those challenges with a few well-planned techniques.

Do you enjoy sewing jersey? Do you have any tips or tricks to share with our readers? Please tell us about them in the comments.

how easy is jersey fabric to sew


  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Coco Chanel | https://www.britannica.com/biography/Coco-Chanel
  2. wikiHow Staff | How to Use an Iron | https://www.wikihow.com/Use-an-Iron
  3. The Free Dictionary | Jacquard | https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Jacquard

What Is Linen Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is linen made from

What is flax linen fabric? Many people think of linen as a luxury material. It’s strong, attractive, comfortable…and expensive. But before cotton became king, linen was the go-to fabric for clothing, housewares, and more. What is linen made of, anyway? What do people use it for today? And how do you sew linen fabric? We’re going to tell you.

What is Linen Made Of?

Some types of fabric, like microfiber, can be made using a variety of different fibers. Linen, however, is made exclusively from plant fiber. What plant is linen made from, then? Linen comes from the flax plant.

flax field
Flax field in harvest

In fact, the fabric takes its name from the latin word linum (and the Greek word, linon), which means flax. Interestingly, the word line also comes from linum, as the ancients often used a taut flax thread to measure a straight line.

Archaeologists have found evidence of linen fabric dating back 30,000 years and spanning many different parts of the world. Cultures in ancient Mesopotamia, Georgia, Egypt and Greece all made linen fabric. The manufacture and processing of linen was also an important part of the economy in medieval Europe. [1]

Linen is a woven fabric. What weave is linen? The linen weave, of course. Linen weave is a type of plain weave.

thread crossing pattern plain weave fabric

What is the Difference Between Cotton and Linen?

Confused? It’s understandable. Cotton and linen are similar fabrics used for similar purposes. They’re both natural fibers. Also, cotton, like linen, is widely used in clothing and household items. But there are quite a few differences, too.

Here are a few:

  • Linen is made from flax fibers, while cotton is made from cotton fibers.
  • Cotton is less expensive than linen.
  • Linen fabric is more textured than cotton fabric.
  • Cotton holds dye better than linen.
  • Linen is more durable than cotton.
  • Cotton is more wrinkle-resistant than linen.

Which is better? It depends on your purpose…and on your budget.

What Color is Natural Linen?

linen fabric

Natural linen comes in a variety of shades. The shade of the fibers stems from the conditions under which an individual plant grows. The most common colors are shades of off-white and grey, which include:

  • Ecru
  • Oatmeal
  • Taupe
  • Beige
  • Gray

It can be difficult to get flax fibers to hold a dye. For this reason, you’ll most often see linen in its natural color.

What is the Highest Quality Linen?

woman dressed in linen

Many people judge cotton by its thread count, that is, how many threads there are in a square inch of fabric. The more threads, the softer and finer the cotton. [2]

Thread count is inaccurate for judging linen. Rather, it’s important to look at:

  • Where the flax was grown
  • The conditions under which it grew
  • How it was handled and processed

The finest linen today comes from Belgium and from Normandy, France. Both places have a cool climate, which is the best climate for growing high quality flax. Flax fibers should be spun close to the time they were harvested. And the most skilled flax weavers today are in Italy. [3]

What is Flax Linen Used For?

Any fabric that has been part of our lives from the time of the hunter-gatherers has to be special. And one of the things that makes linen special is its incredible versatility. There’s a reason that we refer to different classes of household products as “linens.” Though it’s a luxury fabric today, it used to be ubiquitous.


couple in linen clothing

Before cotton became widespread, linen was the fabric from which many items of clothing were made. Breathable and absorbent, it will keep you cool in warm weather, which was probably why it was so popular in Ancient Egypt. 

Today you’ll find linen in high-end shirts, blazers, trousers, and dresses.


Linen’s strength and durability make it an excellent choice for upholstery and furniture coverings. Its price can put it out of reach for some, but if price is no object, linen upholstery is an elegant, long-lasting choice.


Soft and absorbent, linen is a popular choice for sheets, pillowcases, and bedspreads, especially in warm climates. 


When many of us think about bath towels, thick, fluffy cotton comes to mind. Linen bath towels are different: comparatively flat and rough, with a waffle texture. However, many high-end hotels use linen for their towels and bathrobes. That’s because it’s incredibly absorbent, quick drying, durable, and odor-resistant.

Linen dish towels are very popular for the same reasons.

Handbags and Backpacks

Because linen is so durable and hard-wearing, it’s an excellent fabric for handbags and even backpacks.

Table Linens

There it is again: an entire class of housewares grouped under the name “linens.” Linen tablecloths and napkins add a touch of elegance to any table, and, if cared for properly, will do so for a very long time.

Food Preparation and Storage

linen bag

Linen bread bags are hot right now, but people have used them for food storage for a very long time.

Bakers also use a linen cloth called a couche to help a ball of bread dough to keep its shape while rising.

Art Supplies

Linen is a traditional surface for oil painting. Canvas, cotton, and other fabrics are currently less expensive for painting canvases today, however.

Linen Characteristics

What is linen like? What are the characteristics that make linen what it is? Take a look.


Linen is a natural fiber. It’s woven from the spun fibers of the flax plant.


Linen is a woven fabric, rather than a knit fabric. Linen is woven using a plain weave. That is, weft fibers are woven through the same number of warp fibers at a 90 degree angle.


Linen often has a slubbed texture. That is, it has spots that may feel rough or uneven when compared to the rest of the fabric. This comes from the fact that some flax fibers are thicker than others.


Flax fibers are stiff and thick. This gives linen fabric its slubbed texture, as well as its strength and durability.


Linen’s thick, stiff fibers limit how tightly linen can be woven. As a result, linen is fairly porous. This means that it’s delightfully breathable and can conduct heat away from your body.

Pros and Cons of Linen Fabric

There’s a lot to love about linen fabric. There are also some distinct disadvantages.

The Good

Why do we love linen? Let us count the ways.


Linen is one of the strongest fibers. It’s 30 percent stronger than cotton, for example. 


Linen is highly absorbent. It can hold 20 percent of its own weight in water.


Linen doesn’t leave lint behind.


In addition to being hard wearing, linen doesn’t pill like some other fabrics.

Heat Conductive

Linen’s porous texture means that it guides heat away from your body. This makes it ideal for hot climates.


Linen is also highly breathable. Linen sheets and clothing are great for keeping cool.


Linen is hypoallergenic. So allergy sufferers will find a friend in this fabric.

Moth Resistant

Worried about moths eating your clothes? Not if those clothes are made from linen!

Quick Drying

Its porosity, combined with the natural qualities of flax fibers, means that linen products dry quickly. This makes it an excellent material for towels, bathrobes, and more.

Sustainable and Eco-Friendly

Linen is made from natural fibers. Flax plants grow across a variety of climates. They’re hardy, and can grow with rainwater alone. 

Different industries use different parts of the flax plant, so flax production results in very little waste.

Processing flax requires very little in the way of chemicals, irrigation, or energy.

Finally, because linen is a natural fabric, when you’re through with it, it biodegrades. Linen is also recyclable.

The Not So Good

No fabric is perfect. Here are some of the problems with linen.

Wrinkles Easily

Linen wrinkles easily. And it won’t easily let go of those wrinkles. If you like linen, you should learn to like ironing, as well.

Holds on to Stains

Although linen doesn’t take dye very easily, it loves to hold on to stains. So be careful.

Can be Expensive

Before there were cheaper alternatives, linen was ubiquitous. Now, though, it’s something of a specialty fabric. And that means it’s often expensive.

Can Shrink

Linen is also prone to shrinking. Wash your linens in cool water to prevent this from happening.

Fibers Weaken in Sunlight and Hard Water

Hard water and sunlight can weaken flax fibers. So store your linens carefully.

How Easy is Linen to Sew?

Do you want to know how to sew linen? Sewing linen isn’t hard, but there are a few tips and tricks for getting it just right.

Pre-wash linen fabric to avoid shrinking. Pre-wash it in hot water to minimize shrinking after the garment is finished. Hang dry.

Steam-press or damp-press your linen before you lay it out

Because linen stains easily, use tailor’s chalk for marking, rather than a marking pen, even a washable one.

Follow your pattern’s grain line carefully because linen has a large, visible, napped grain.

Use a rotary cutter to cut thicker linen fabrics. It’s easier.

Use a regular point needle, and make sure to match the size of the needle to the weight of your fabric. Choose needle size 11/80 for lightweight linen and 14/90 for medium weight linen.

Choose a cotton thread. It’s a good idea in general to match the fiber content of your fabric and thread: synthetic thread for synthetic fabrics and natural thread for natural fabrics.

To prevent fraying, you might want to clean finish your seam edges. You could also use seam tape or double bias tape

You could also pink your seam edges.

Looking after Linen 

Although it’s not necessary to treat linen as a delicate while sewing it, linen items do require some special care.

First, always check the manufacturer’s care instructions. This can save you money and aggravation. Also, if your item is a linen blend, the fibers with which it’s blended may change its care needs. If your item is dry clean only, do not attempt to toss it into the washing machine.

If your item is machine washable, wash it in the short or delicate cycle. Does linen shrink? You bet it does. So use cold water.

Use a mild detergent for delicate fabrics.

You can also hand wash your linen in cold water.

As we said, linen is prone to shrinking, so it’s best to avoid the dryer. Instead, hang linen items to dry on a padded hanger, or lay flat on a drying rack. Don’t wring your linen to remove water. Instead, roll it gently in a clean towel and press extra water out before hanging your item to dry.

Because linen isn’t great at holding dye, dyed linen items can bleed. So wash them separately.

Try to remove stains with club soda. Never bleach a linen item. Better yet, in case of resistant stains, consult a professional.

If you need to iron your linen, set your iron to the linen setting, and iron while the item is still damp. If your item is already dry, use your iron’s steam setting or spritz the item with water before ironing.

Lovely Linen

Linen has been part of the fabric of our lives for over 30,000 years. It’s durable, sustainable, attractive, and easy to work with. Over time, cheaper fabrics have supplanted it for many of its original purposes. But it’s difficult to top linen’s luxurious appearance and feel.

Sewing linen is easy. Caring for it requires a bit of work, but it’s well worth it.

Do you enjoy working with linen? Do you have any linen care tips you’d like to share? Leave them below!

linen fabric


  1. Kvavadze, Eliso, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta Boaretto, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani | 30,000 Years old wild flax fibers – Testimony for fabricating prehistoric linen. Science 325(5946): 1359 | https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4270521
  2.  Kathy Price-Robinson | What does thread count really mean? | https://home.howstuffworks.com/home-decor/bedroom/thread-count.htm
  3. Truth About Thread Count | Pure Linen, The World’s Strongest Natural Fibre | http://www.truthaboutthreadcount.com/pure-linen.html

What Is Microfiber Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is microfiber

Microfiber — or microfibre — you’ve seen it. You’ve probably used it. Perhaps you’ve even read about the pollution that microfibers cause. But aside from being an ultra-fine denier synthetic fabric, what is it, really? Buckle up. We’re going to tell you.

What is microfiber?

multicolored microfibers cloths

The term “microfiber” covers a variety of cloth types, each with its own fiber content, characteristics, and applications. What unites them all is this: they are made from synthetic fibers, and those fibres are all less than 0.7 denier in thickness. [1]

Microfiber is incredibly versatile, and once you know what to look for, you’ll start seeing it everywhere. Microfiber fabric comes in woven and knit varieties. You’ll find it in clothing, upholstery, and housewares. Some industrial filters use microfiber. And there’s nothing like a microfiber cloth for certain cleaning jobs.

But as useful as microfiber technology is, it also has a huge environmental impact. Just like the microbeads that many countries have banned, microfibers are proving devastating to aquatic life. And a recent study found that microfibers comprise 85 percent of human-made debris that washes up on shorelines around the world. [2, 3, 4]

So, microfiber: gift or curse? That’s the decision that we, the consumers, have to make.

What is Microfiber Made From?

microfiber fabric close up

The term “microfiber” refers to any fabric made from synthetic fibers that are less than 0.7 denier in thickness.

Microfiber technology dates back to the 1950s. The first widely available microfiber fabric, Ultrasuede, a high-end synthetic suede, became widely available in the 1970s. The number and types of microfiber fabrics have exploded since then. [5]

Ultrasuede is made from ultra-fine polyester fibers, but it’s just one type of microfiber. [6]

Some other common types include:

  • Polyamide (nylon)
  • Polypropylene 
  • Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
  • Combinations of different synthetic fibers

What is Microfiber Used For?

The reason microfiber is so ubiquitous is that it’s so good for so many things. Here are some of its main applications.

Leather Substitute

The first widely commercially available microfiber fabric was Ultrasuede, a suede substitute. Ultrasuede and similar microfiber fabrics are less expensive than leather. They’re also an appealing option for people who wish to avoid leather. 

You’ll find microfiber used as a leather substitute in clothing, shoes, handbags, wallets, upholstery, sports equipment, and more.

Clothing and Activewear

A different type of microfiber is widely used today in athletic wear and compression garments. Its water resistance and moisture-wicking ability make it a natural for shirts, leggings, and shorts. Other types of microfiber appear in compression garments for athletic and medical use. You’ll even find microfiber in shoe construction.

Linens and Housewares

Some microfiber fabrics are soft and fine, and can mimic more expensive fabrics like silk, cotton, and linen. Also, unlike these fabrics, microfiber fabrics are generally machine washable and hard-wearing. Some varieties are highly absorbent, too. And it goes without saying that microfiber is a lot less expensive.

For these reasons, you’ll find microfiber in products like:

  • Table linens
  • Bed linens
  • Upholstery
  • Towels and washcloths

Cleaning Products

Some microfiber fabrics have a magic combination of softness and absorbency that make them the material of choice for certain cleaning jobs.

Do you need a soft cloth that won’t scratch glass lenses or other delicate surfaces? That’s microfiber. How about a super-absorbent towel for a quick cleanup? It’s microfiber to the rescue. Microfiber absorbs grease and oil, as well as other liquids. And it doesn’t leave dust or lint. 

Also, instead of moving dirt and dust around, microfiber actually traps it and lifts it away. It can also remove dust mites without the use of chemicals. For this reason, microfiber is a boon to allergy sufferers. [7[

Because it can also sweep up bacteria and microbes, microfiber cleaning products reduce the need for chemical cleaners and reduces cleaning time as well. And microfiber (“Swiffer-type”) mops can also reduce cross-contamination. [8]

Common cleaning applications for microfiber include:

  • Lens cleaning cloths
  • Rags
  • Dish cloths
  • Towels and washcloths
  • Wipes
  • Mop heads

For safer, faster, and more effective cleaning, there’s really nothing like microfiber.

Medical Uses

Because of their low cost and comparative disposability, some types of microfiber lend themselves to different medical uses, including:

  • Surgical gowns
  • Hospital drapes
  • Wound dressings
  • Sutures
  • Medical meshes
  • Face masks
  • Protective gloves
  • Surgical packs
  • Hospital bedding and linens
  • Hospital-grade cleaning supplies

The ultra-fine fibers of microfiber cleaning implements can filter out and pick up microbes and bacteria that larger denier thread fabrics miss. From PPE to hospital-grade cleaning, microfiber is making hospitals cleaner and safer.

Construction Materials

Microfibers add strength and stability to certain construction materials, including:

  • Insulation
  • Reinforced concrete
  • Lamination between textiles and boards
  • Liquid transport media
  • High performance air and automotive filters 
  • And more

Why Has Microfiber Become So Popular?

pile of microfiber fabric

Microfiber’s popularity comes down to a combination of unique characteristics which allow it to outperform different sorts of fibers in a huge number of applications. Here are some of microfiber’s best qualities.


Because microfiber fabrics are made from ultra-fine filaments, many of them are exceedingly soft. Not just soft to the touch, but soft enough to clean lenses and other delicate surfaces without scratching them.


Microfiber fabrics are hard-wearing and durable. They resist both water and abrasion. When mixed with industrial compounds like concrete, microfibers add strength and stability.

Super Absorbent

Microfiber cloth can hold 16 times the amount of liquid that cotton cloth can hold. This is because of its special structure. Notice how a cotton thread is solid, while the microfiber thread has splits. These splits aid the rapid absorption of liquid.

microfiber vs cotton absorbency

Moisture Resistant

While some microfiber cloth is made to absorb liquids, others, especially the varieties that include nylon, are designed to repel liquid. Some polyester microfiber fabrics have coatings that render them 100 percent waterproof. This makes them suitable for outerwear, backpacks, handbags, and more.

Moisture Wicking

Some microfiber fabrics wick sweat and moisture away from your body while allowing air to circulate. This is a very valuable quality in sportswear, base layers, and warm-weather clothing.

Machine Washable

Many types of microfiber are machine washable. This makes them excellent for a wide range of applications, from clothing to bed and table linens, to other sorts of housewares. But before tossing your favorite microfiber item into the washing machine, always make sure to check the manufacturer’s care instructions.


Because most microfiber materials are less expensive than their organic counterparts, many products can be treated as disposable or semi-disposable. The use of disposable and semi-disposable products in hospitals reduces the chances of cross-contamination during medical procedures, as well as during cleaning.


Different microfiber fabrics provide less expensive substitutes for luxury materials like silk, leather, and linen. 

Cruelty Free

Some microfiber fabrics provide a high-quality, lower-priced, cruelty free alternative to animal-derived materials like leather and silk. 

Attracts Dust and Dirt

The structure of the fibers in microfiber rags and mops attracts dust and dirt, and holds it in, rather than spreading it around. This makes microfiber an excellent material for a number of different types of cleaning.

Removes Bacteria and Microbes

The tiny fibers in microfiber fabric can also trap some bacteria and microbes. This makes it possible to do a more complete cleaning job while using fewer cleaning chemicals.

Anti-Dust and Anti-Lint

One of the main selling points of microfiber cloth for cleaning applications is that it doesn’t leave dust or lint behind. 

Are There Different Types of Microfiber?

folded microfiber sheets

Oh, yes.

There are a huge number of microfiber fabrics, each with its own fiber content, production method, individual characteristics, and uses. Here are the main types.

Polyamide (nylon)

Polyamide, or nylon microfiber is made from nylon. It’s one of the more expensive types of microfiber. Polyamide microfiber has the following characteristics:

  • Stretchy
  • Soft
  • Easy to clean
  • Lightweight
  • Strong
  • Heat and flame resistant

Nomex and Kevlar are two types of polyamide microfiber. Nylon microfiber is also widely used in apparel and upholstery. [9]

Polypropylene (Prolen)

Polypropylene has a vast range of applications, including microfiber fabric and other products. Some characteristics of polypropylene microfiber include:

  • Lightweight
  • Colorfast
  • Inexpensive
  • Strong
  • Moisture wicking

Polypropylene microfiber is a popular fabric for cold-weather base layers and hot-weather clothing (because of its moisture wicking properties). You’ll also find it in bedding, diapers, and sanitary products. Prolen is a type of polypropylene microfiber used for suturing.


Polyester microfiber has the following characteristics:

  • Inexpensive
  • Stiff
  • Moisture-wicking
  • Easy to wash
  • Crinkle resistant
  • Shrink resistant
  • Resists mildew
  • Resists abrasion
  • Chemical resistant
  • Quick drying
  • Weather resistant

Polyester microfiber is a popular material for athletic clothing, outerwear, backpacks, and handbags. 


If a fabric is advertised as being made from recycled plastic, chances are it’s PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic. Whether you know it or not, the following fabrics are made from PET plastic, recycled and otherwise.

  • Dacron
  • Trevira
  • Terylene

PET fabrics are strong and water resistant. They’re used in clothing manufacture and carpeting.

Microfiber Blend

You might also come across cloth labeled as “microfiber blend.” What does that mean? It’s fairly self-explanatory. Manufacturers may blend two or more types of microfibers to create a fabric that has properties of both.

Woven Microfiber

Microfibers can be woven to create different types of cloth. You might find woven microfiber cloth in:

  • Cleaning cloths and rags
  • Apparel
  • Linens and bedding
  • Handbags and backpacks
  • Industrial cleaning

Split Microfiber

In order to make some microfiber fabrics super-absorbent, manufacturers split the fibers during the manufacturing process. Split microfibers are multi-stranded, which creates the open spaces that result in increased absorbency.

Non-Woven Microfiber

One of the primary uses of non-woven microfiber is disposable and semi-disposable cleaning supplies, including:

  • Wipes
  • Cleaning sponges
  • “Swiffer”-type mop heads

How Easy is it to Work With?

pink microfiber material

This, of course, depends on which microfiber fabric you’re talking about. In general, the types of microfiber used in garments and bags are fairly easy to sew. Many types are fray resistant, and many types (but not all) hold their shape well.

If you’re sewing woven microfiber fabric, treat it as you would any fabric with a tight weave. Use sharp needles and use a new needle for every project. Sharp, new needles will minimize damage to your fabric, and will help stop the fabric from puckering around your stitches. 

And always match your needle gauge to your fabric type. Microtex needles are made to sew ultra-fine fibers.

For knit microfiber fabrics, choose a ballpoint needle. Also, if your fabric is stretchy, make sure to choose stretch stitches when sewing.

If your microfiber is a stretchy variety, use polyester thread instead of cotton thread. Polyester thread also has some stretch, and will work better than cotton thread. Make sure to match your thread weight to your fabric as well: light thread with light fabric, heavier thread with heavier fabric.

Consider using a stabilizer for lightweight microfiber fabrics, especially when sewing around curves. An iron-in stabilizer could harm the drape and flow of your fabric. But if your fabric is machine washable, you could use a washable spray stabilizer. You could also pin tissue paper to the bottom of the fabric during sewing, and remove it when you’re done.

Remember that all microfiber is synthetic. This means that most microfiber fabrics you’ll be working with are sensitive to heat. So iron on a low heat setting suitable for synthetics, and use a press cloth to minimize damage.

Should We Really Be Using Microfiber Fabric Anyway?

Microfiber fabrics are amazingly versatile, and what they do, they do better than pretty much any other material. But they have a large and undeniable environmental impact. Finding the balance between this material’s benefits and its environmental costs is one of the most important tasks that stands before us.


The pollution caused by microbeads, those tiny bits of plastic that add a mild abrasive quality to cosmetics and cleaning supplies, is well documented. Many governments have banned microbeads as a result. Unfortunately, microfibers cause similar environmental damage, and on a similar scale.

One major source of microfiber pollution is the gray water from our own laundry. When we wash our microfiber items, they shed a lot of those tiny fibers into the water. How many? Try around 9 million fibers per wash! Those fibers then make their way into lakes, rivers, and oceans. [10, 11]

When we wear or use microfiber items, we’re also releasing fibers into the air.

Animal Life

When PET-based microfiber fleece came on to the market, a lot of us rejoiced. Finally, a way to recycle all of those soda bottles into something beautiful and useful! Unfortunately, microfibers have been a disaster for marine life. 

Some two million tons of microfiber is released into the ocean every year. Of that, 700,000 tons come from domestic laundering of microfleece. [12]

Marine animals ingest the fibers. Not only are the fibers potentially toxic, but they are also indigestible. This can cause problems with feeding, digestion, reproduction, and other vital life functions. And those problems can pass up the food chain, all the way to us.

Human Health

Microfibers make their way into the water supply and into the air. Food animals, particularly seafood animals, swallow them, and they make our way into our bodies, as well. If that’s not enough, microfibers expand in the ocean and absorb bacteria, which we then ingest.

Microplastics present a few different threats to human health. One study shows that microplastics accumulate in the kidneys, liver, intestines, and possibly the brain. Another study showed that phthalates make breast cancer cells grow faster and become more invasive. And in a third study, 87 percent of test subjects had microplastics in their lungs. [12, 13, 14]

There’s a lot of plastic in the environment, and a lot of plastic in us already. Microfibers are only adding to the problem.

Petroleum based

Finally, let’s not forget that microfiber fabrics are derived from different types of plastic. And plastic is a petroleum product [15], with all of the attendant environmental impact, including:

  • Oil spills 
  • Release of toxic refining chemicals 
  • Climate change
  • Ground and surface water contamination
  • Soil contamination
  • Air pollution

So just don’t buy microfiber? All right, but you’d have to work very hard to avoid it. Over 60 percent of garments on the market today have microfiber content.

And what about all of microfiber’s unique benefits?

For some applications, particularly hospital-level cleaning, microfiber’s benefits are undeniable. Microfiber cleaning products eliminate dirt and prevent cross-contamination without leaving dust behind. In addition, their unique properties mean that you can get things cleaner while using fewer cleaning chemicals.

As always, there’s a balance to be struck. 

Natural Alternatives to Microfiber

Are there natural alternatives to microfiber? Well, considering the fact that many microfiber fabrics were invented as alternatives to natural fibers, we’d say yes. Of course you may pay more for them. Here are a few.


The first commercially available microfiber fabric was Ultrasuede, a suede substitute. There are also microfiber fabrics that mimic full-grain leather. The lower cost of microfiber has made it a popular material for traditionally leather goods like wallets, handbags, clothing and sports equipment. 

For people who don’t mind leather’s animal origins, and are willing to pay more for materials, leather is a natural alternative to microfiber.


Some types of microfiber mimic the soft, lightweight, drapey characteristics of silk. Microfiber is much cheaper than silk, however, so it’s become a very popular apparel fabric.

In addition to the cost, some people object to silk’s animal origins. However, silk is another natural alternative to microfiber.


Cotton is a natural alternative to some types of microfiber, especially when it comes to bed linens. They’re both soft. However, cotton is absorbent, while microfiber wicks moisture away. Cotton also requires ironing, while microfiber is wrinkle-resistant. On the other hand, cotton is much more breathable than microfiber. 

It may take time getting used to the differences, but cotton is another natural alternative to certain types of microfiber.


Linen, which is made from flax fibers, is another natural alternative to microfiber. It’s breathable and easy to work with, too. On the other hand, linen is a bit more difficult to care for than microfiber. And it goes without saying that linen can be more expensive.


Cloth made from bamboo fibers is an increasingly popular alternative to synthetics. Bamboo grows quickly and is very sustainable. Bamboo-based fabrics tend to be soft and breathable. Many are lightweight and have a lovely drape, as well.

Different types of bamboo fabric vary on sustainability, however. Bamboo viscose, for example, is a type of rayon. Rayon is a semi-synthetic fabric that relies on heavy chemical processing of natural materials. And its production is highly polluting.

Other bamboo fabrics, however, are made by spinning the strong bamboo fibers themselves into yarn. And these are very environmentally friendly and sustainable.

Final Thoughts

“Microfiber fabric” refers to a range of synthetic materials whose fibres are less than 0.7 denier in thickness. These fabrics are made from a variety of materials, using a variety of processes. There are both woven and non-woven varieties of microfiber fabrics. The fabrics may be composed of whole or split fibers.

Different microfiber fabrics have different characteristics that equip them for a wide variety of purposes, from apparel to industrial, from medical equipment to housewares to cleaning equipment. Some microfiber fabrics provide high quality substitutes for more expensive natural materials like silk, linen, or leather.

As versatile and useful as microfiber fabrics are, their production and use take a terrible environmental toll. Microfibers comprise a large percentage of the human-made waste that washes up on beaches around the world. Microfibers poison aquatic life and pollute water, air and soil. 

How can we strike a balance between microfiber’s outstanding utility and the environmental damage it causes? Is it worth the harm to oceans, animal life, and our own health, to have a cheaper alternative to silk and leather? On the other hand, can we afford to disregard a technology that is so useful, inexpensive, and effective?

This is the question before us.

microfiber and the environment


  1. BusinessDictionary | Denier | http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/denier.html
  2. Leah Messinger | How your clothes are poisoning our oceans and food supply | https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jun/20/microfibers-plastic-pollution-oceans-patagonia-synthetic-clothes-microbeads
  3. Andrew J. R. Watts, Mauricio A. Urbina, Shauna Corr, Ceri Lewis, and Tamara S. Galloway | Ingestion of Plastic Microfibers by the Crab Carcinus maenas and Its Effect on Food Consumption and Energy Balance | https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.5b04026?journalCode=esthag&
  4. Mark Anthony Browne, Phillip Crump, Stewart J. Niven, Emma Teuten, Andrew Tonkin, Tamara Galloway, and Richard Thompson | Accumulation of Microplastic on Shorelines Worldwide: Sources and Sinks | https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es201811s
  5. Toray Industries Inc. | 1970s | https://www.ultrasuede.com/about/history/his_1970.html
  6. Toray Industries Inc. | The Science of Ultrasuede | https://www.ultrasuede.com/about/science.html
  7. Textile Course | Applications of Microfibers and Microfilaments | https://textilecourse.blogspot.com/2018/03/applications-microfibers-microfilaments.html
  8. EPA | Using Microfiber Mops in Hospitals | https://archive.epa.gov/region9/waste/archive/web/pdf/mops.pdf
  9. Science Direct | Polyamide Fiber | https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/polyamide-fiber
  10. Rojalin Priyadarshini Singh, Sunanda Mishra, Alok Prasad Das | Synthetic microfibers: Pollution toxicity and remediation | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045653520313928
  11. Ocean Clean Wash | What are microfibers? | https://www.oceancleanwash.org/the-issue/
  12. Rojalin Priyadarshini Singh, Sunanda Mishra, Alok Prasad Das | Marine microfiber pollution: A review on present status and future challenges | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19300451
  13. Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Bernardo Lemos, Hongqiang Ren | Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure | https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28436478/
  14. Tsung-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Fang Tsai, Chia-Yi Hsu, Po-Lin Kuo, Jau-Nan Lee, Chee-Yin Chai, Shao-Chun Wang, Eing-Mei Tsai | Phthalates induce proliferation and invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer through the AhR/HDAC6/c-Myc signaling pathway | https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22049059/
  15. John Misachi | What Is The Environmental Impact Of The Petroleum Industry? | https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-the-environmental-impact-of-the-petroleum-industry.html

What Is Chiffon Fabric Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is chiffon

What is chiffon fabric? Once you’ve seen it, it’s hard to forget it. Floaty, translucent, often shimmering, it’s a favourite for gowns and wraps.

What makes chiffon special is not its fibre content, nor even its weave. The difference is in the threads themselves. Chiffon fabric is woven with two different types of high-twist yarns. The result is a lightweight, sheer fabric with a bit of stretch, which is slightly rough to the touch.

What is Chiffon Made Of? 

pink chiffon

The first chiffon dates back to the 1700s in Europe. For a little less than 200 years, it was made from silk.

The invention of nylon in 1938 brought a less expensive nylon chiffon. Twenty years after that, in 1958, polyester provided a stronger, even less expensive material with which to make chiffon. 

Today, you will find chiffon made from a variety of synthetic and natural fibres, including silk, cotton, nylon, polyester, and rayon.

How is Chiffon Made?

Chiffon is a woven fabric. That is, strands of yarn are interlaced to create a continuous mesh. 

Chiffon is made using a plain weave. Each weft thread passes over a single warp thread then under the next in an alternating pattern. Plain weave is the most common weaving pattern. Plenty of fabrics are created using plain weave. What makes chiffon different is the construction of the threads used in the weaving. [1]

Chiffon uses alternating S-twist and Z-twist threads. S-twist threads twist in a counter-clockwise direction, like the letter S. Z-twist yarns twist in a clockwise direction, like the letter Z. 

yarn twist threads

The different twist directions create a pucker in the fabric that gives chiffon its characteristic slightly rough texture.

Although the threads twist in different directions, they have the same thickness and weight. The result is a strong fabric that doesn’t unravel easily. It’s also sheer and light. And it drapes in an elegant way.

What Type of Fabric is Chiffon and How is it Used?

You’ll find chiffon primarily in garments, most specifically in certain types of women’s wear. Some common uses include:

  • Nightgowns
  • Blouses
  • Sarees, dupattas, and hijabs
  • Lingerie
  • Ribbons
  • Evening wear
  • Scarves
  • Wedding dresses

Chiffon flows, drapes, and adds an elegant touch to garments. In dresses and wedding dresses, a designer might use a chiffon overlay to add volume or dimension to the fabric below. 

Some types of chiffon also sparkle and shimmer. You might see it in accessories like scarves or wraps, which are decorative as well as functional.

Chiffon is a popular fabric for saris, dupattas, and hijabs. It drapes smoothly, holds dye well, and is appropriate for warm weather. Its dramatic appearance and ability to hold brightly coloured dyes has made chiffon a Bollywood favourite.

Indian woman in traditional chiffon dress

Its feather lightness makes it a good choice for summer-weight blouses and clothing. And it’s a popular choice for peignoirs, nightgowns, and other lingerie because of its sheer quality.

You’ll also find chiffon in different kinds of home decor, such as sheer curtains and decorative upholstery.

chiffon bed curtains

What is Chiffon Fabric Like?

No matter what its fibre composition, all chiffon fabric has the following characteristics in common.


Chiffon is extremely lightweight. This makes it an excellent fabric for summer and warm climates.


Chiffon fabric is a fine mesh that you can see through. For this reason, it’s often used as an outer layer in garments, in order to complement and enhance the fabric beneath it.


This comes down to a combination of the fibre content and the alternating S and Z twists of the individual threads. Different fibre types will give different degrees of shimmer. Silk chiffon, for example, is very shimmery.


Because chiffon is woven in different directions, it has a gentle stretch to it. Different fibre content may make a specific chiffon fabric more or less stretchy. 


The alternating S-twist and Z-twist threads give chiffon a pucker. This, in turn, creates a slightly rough texture that you can feel.


Chiffon of all types holds colour extremely well.


Chiffon drapes and flows beautifully, making it a go-to fabric for women’s wear, curtains, scarves, and elegant home furnishings.


You might think that something so sheer, lightweight, and flowing would be extremely delicate. You’d be wrong. Chiffon’s tight weave makes it surprisingly strong. It also resists unraveling well.

The Pros and Cons of Chiffon

model in chiffon

Chiffon is a dramatic, elegant fabric that brings a lot to certain kinds of projects. At the same time, no fabric is perfect for every use. And when it comes to sewing chiffon, things can get, well…a bit tricky.

The Upsides

Chiffon is very lightweight and its weave provides excellent air flow through the fabric. This makes it excellent for warm weather use.

Between its shimmer and its drape, chiffon is very elegant and pretty. It can add an otherworldly touch to whatever you’re trying to create.

Chiffon is also very strong. 

Chiffon holds dye well, making it a natural for costuming, evening wear, and certain kinds of housewares.

Certain types of chiffon, particularly polyester and nylon chiffon, are also inexpensive.

The Downsides

Chiffon can be tricky to work with. Why?

First, it doesn’t hold its shape well. This means that if you cut out a pattern piece, it can easily become deformed during handling or sewing. And if you want to retain chiffon’s unique drape and translucence, you can’t use a fabric stabilizer to get around this.

Although chiffon resists unraveling, it can and will snag very easily.

It’s also very slippery, which can cause problems during sewing.

How to Sew Chiffon

rainbow of chiffon fabric

How easy is chiffon to sew? It can be tricky, but if you know the tricks, it can be easier than you might think.

First, Choose the Right Project

Chiffon is an excellent fabric for anything that drapes and flows. However, these same qualities make it inappropriate for close-fitting structured garments. Choosing the right project for your chiffon will solve half of your problems up front.


Stabilizing your chiffon will help it to keep its shape during cutting and sewing. And this is vital to your finished product.

Before you start, check to see if your fabric is washable. If it is, you can use a bit of spray starch or liquid fabric stabilizer to make sure your chiffon holds its shape when you’re cutting out your pattern pieces, and later when you’re sewing them.

If your fabric isn’t washable, you can pin a piece of tissue paper to the back of your chiffon before cutting it. You can also pin tissue paper to the back of your chiffon before sewing it. When you’re finished sewing, gently tear the tissue paper away.

Sharp Scissors or Rotary Cutter

Sharp scissors always make for better cutting. But when it comes to cutting chiffon, a sharp blade can make a world of difference.

Sharp Microtex Needle

A microtex needle is a very thin needle with an extremely fine, extremely sharp point. Its specifically designed to work with micro fibres and coated fibres. Because they’re so sharp, you’ll need to change your microtex needle more often, so have plenty on hand.

French Seams

A French seam is a double seam that covers rough fabric edges. There are several reasons you’ll want to cover your edges when working with chiffon. First, it will keep them from fraying. Also, because chiffon is transparent, rough fabric edges can ruin the smooth, elegant appearance of the fabric. [2]

To make a French seam, first pin your fabric pieces together, right sides facing one another, and use tissue paper to stabilize (if desired).

Next, sew the fabric together using a one-quarter-inch seam allowance. Then trim your seam edges to one-eigth of an inch.

Turn your fabric to the right sides, and, with your iron set to a low synthetic setting, iron your seam flat.

Now, pin your seam with the wrong side facing out once more. The rough edges should be concealed within the seam.

Finally, sew your second seam, using a three-eighths inch seam allowance.

How to Hem Chiffon

You’ll also want to cover your raw edges when hemming chiffon. However, if you don’t do it correctly, you could end up with a curled, uneven, sloppy-looking edge. Here’s how to do it right.

First, set your iron to a low synthetic setting. Iron a half-inch fold.

Next, sew a line along the folded edge, using a one-eighth inch seam allowance. Chiffon’s light weight means that it can sometimes get caught in your feed dogs. Putting a piece of tissue paper between the fabric and your feed dogs can keep your sewing machine from eating your fabric. When you’ve finished your line, trim the raw edge.

Fold over the seam and press again. Now sew a second seam, again with a one-eighth inch allowance.

You can watch this technique in action here.

For more tips and tricks for working with chiffon, check out this tutorial from Professor Pincushion.

Caring for Chiffon

How to care for chiffon depends upon the fibre content. Some types of chiffon, like silk chiffon, may be dry clean only. Other types are washable. Always check the care instructions on any garment before washing or ironing. And to save yourself a headache, check the care instructions for any fabric before you begin to work with it.

How to Wash Chiffon

Even if the manufacturer’s instructions don’t specify dry cleaning, chiffon fabrics are generally extremely delicate. Unless the instructions specify machine washing, it’s always safer to hand-wash your chiffon.

Hand wash your washable chiffon in cool water — 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4.4 degrees Celsius). 

To remove odours, add one-quarter cup of vinegar to your water, and soak the fabric for 30 minutes.

Empty your sink or basin, refill with cool water, then add a cap full of delicate fabric cleanser. Soak it for another half hour, then rinse with cool water.

To remove stains, apply baking soda and scrub gently with a toothbrush.

Gently squeeze the excess water from your fabric. Then lay the fabric on a clean, dry towel. Roll up the towel with the fabric inside and squeeze some more.

Lay your garment flat or hang it to dry.

How to Machine Wash Chiffon

If your fabric’s care instructions say that it can be washed in a washing machine, choose cold water and the gentlest possible cycle. Wash your chiffon in a mesh bag, and use a detergent made for delicate fabrics. 

Dry your chiffon flat or hang it to dry. You can also machine dry it on the air dry setting.

How to Get Wrinkles Out of Chiffon

There are two primary ways to get wrinkles out of chiffon.

First, you can steam the wrinkles out. You can use a garment steamer, or, if you’re already headed for the shower, place towels on the bathroom floor, leave your shower curtain open, and hang up your chiffon garment in the bathroom. It should take around 15 minutes for the steam to remove the wrinkles.

You can also iron wrinkles out of chiffon. First, set your iron to the chiffon setting. If your iron doesn’t have one, use a cool setting for synthetics. Lay a slightly damp cloth over the fabric. This will keep your fabric from drying out. Iron in smooth vertical strokes, starting in the center and working your way out toward the edges.

Final Thoughts

Chiffon is a fabric of contradictions. It’s delicate but strong. It has many uses, but those uses are specific. It can be tricky to sew, but not difficult if you know the tricks.

Do you enjoy sewing with chiffon? Do you have any care tips you’d like to share? Tell us about it in the comments!

is chiffon easy to sew


  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Plain Weave | https://www.britannica.com/technology/plain-weave
  2. WikiHow Authors | How to Sew a French Seam | https://www.wikihow.com/Sew-a-French-Seam

What Is Damask Fabric And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is damask fabric

What is damask? The name may sound exotic, but in essence, damask is a fabric with designs woven into it in a very specific way. It’s an ancient technique that’s still popular today. Damask fabric is a favorite for high end garments, upholstery, and housewares. But it’s not just a pretty face. It’s also water resistant and quite strong. Want to know more? Let’s go.

What is Damask Fabric?

classic damask fabric pattern

Fabrics can take their name from any number of places. Some, like silk, are named after their component materials. Others, such as fleece, are named for what they used to be made of. Poplin takes its name from the person who used to wear it — the Pope — although today it describes fabric that’s woven in a certain way. And rayon describes a manufacturing technique.

Damask comes from the Arabic word dimashq, which many of us know as Damascus, the capital of today’s Syria. In the 12th century, the city of Damascus was a major trading centre along the Great Silk Route. It was here that European traders first encountered the fabric, though the technique used to produce it is much older than that. [1]

Damask Weaving

Damask is one of the five original weaving techniques of weavers in the Byzantine Empire and the Middle East. It became extremely popular in Europe, starting in the 14th century, though it had been popular in the Middle East and Byzantine Empire for centuries before.

The Damask weave combines two different variations on the satin weave structure pictured below:

Image of satin weave structure; public domain; via Wikimedia Commons.

Weavers create the design using warp-facing satin weave, where the horizontal warp fibers are floated over the vertical weft fibers. They create the background in a weft-facing sateen weave. In this weave, the vertical weft fibers float over the horizontal warp fibres.

Watch how it’s done here.

Damask Across Time

Early damask fabric was woven from silk, wool, or linen. Weavers used a single color, relying on the difference in weave to define the design. The result was a glossy pattern against a duller background. Later damasks used two colors: one for the warp threads and a different one for the weft threads.

The invention of the Jacquard device in 1804 revolutionized the production of decorative woven fabrics like damask. A Jacquard loom allows the operator to control individual weft threads.This, in turn, makes it faster and easier to weave intricate patterns such as those used for damasks and brocades. [2]

Here’s a Jacquard loom in action.

Today’s damasks are woven on computerized Jacquard looms. You can find modern damask fabrics made from both synthetic and natural materials.

How Is Damask Used?

Damask is luxurious and elegant. It’s also water-resistant and incredibly durable. These qualities make it a natural for home decor, and this is primarily where you will find it. Damask is a very popular material for:

  • Curtains
  • Upholstery
  • Rugs
  • Table linens
  • Bed linens
  • Throws
  • Light rugs

You’ll also find damask in apparel. Its stiffness makes it less suitable for everyday casual wear. However, you will encounter damask in:

  • Scarves
  • Evening wear
  • Jackets

Because certain damasks are extremely hard-wearing, you may also encounter damask accessories, such as:

  • Luggage
  • Handbags
  • Eyeglass holders
  • Phone holders
  • Wallets

In short, if your project requires a fabric that’s simultaneously attractive and durable, damask can be a good choice.

What is Damask Fabric Like?

Once you’ve seen or touched damask, you’ll never forget its unique combination of properties. What are these properties? Let’s have a look.


One of the key features of damask fabric is its pattern. Though there is no specific “damask pattern,” many damask designs reflect this fabric’s Middle Eastern and Byzantine roots through repeating abstract floral or geometric designs.


Damask patterns are created by using different weaving techniques for the background and the design. The different weaves reflect light differently. This makes the pattern stand out against the background. It also means that the fabric will look slightly different in different types of light.


Because the designs that characterize damask fabric are woven into the fabric itself, you can see the designs on both sides of the fabric. Some damask fabrics are truly reversible, with the design showing clearly and attractively on both sides. With others, however, the designs may not appear as attractive on the reverse side.


Although a specific fabric’s durability can vary with its fibre content, most damask is highly durable. This comes down to its tight weave.

Damask upholstery fabric is very popular for its combination of exceptional durability and attractive appearance.

Thick and Heavy

Because damask is made using multiple layers of thread, it tends to be a thick, heavy fabric. This can, of course, vary with fiber content. A wool damask is a lot heavier, for example, than one made from polyester. But a polyester damask will still be thicker than plain weave polyester fabric.

Water Resistant

The tight weave of damask fabric makes liquid more likely to bead on the surface than to soak in. This is another reason that damask fabrics can be excellent for upholstery and table linens.

Easy to Sew

The tight weave used to create damask means that many damask fabrics are fray-resistant and easy to sew. This can vary, however, with the fibre content.

What Color is Damask?

“Damask” refers to a weaving technique rather than to a color. Damask fabric can have any color or combination of colors. Traditional damask used a single color, relying on different weaving techniques to make the damask pattern stand out from the background. Over time, multicolored damasks also emerged.

What’s the Difference Between Damask and Brocade?

At first glance, brocade and damask might appear similar. They’re both woven, for example. And they’re both woven on Jacquard looms. They both have raised designs, as well. But there are quite a few differences between the two. Here are the most important ones.


Damask fabrics typically use a single color thread. Sometimes they may use two colors. Brocade patterns typically use many colors.


Damask patterns tend to be flatter than brocade patterns. Brocade patterns, on the other hand, are embossed and raised.


Damask fabric is reversible. Brocades are not reversible.


Damask’s visual effects are the result of contrasting weaving techniques, which catch the light differently. The shine in many brocade designs comes down to metallic threads woven into the design. 

The Pros and Cons of Damask

For the right project, damask can be the perfect fabric. But it’s not perfect for every project. Here are some of its upsides and pitfalls.


Damask is very versatile. Its stable nature lends itself to a variety of uses, including indoor and outdoor upholstery, housewares, table linens, curtains, light rugs, and even some types of garments.

This fabric’s reversibility means versatility in appearance as well as in function.

Damask is typically hard-wearing. This, of course, varies with the fiber content. 

Its beauty and unique appearance add a touch of elegance to whatever you’re creating.

The tight weave makes damask water repellent. This, too, can vary with fiber content.

Many damask fabrics are also quite easy to work with, as they resist fraying and unraveling. They also tend to hold their shape well. (Again, this varies depending on the fiber content).


Many damask fabrics are quite stiff. While this makes them excellent for upholstery, housewares, and outerwear, it’s generally not a great choice for everyday clothing. Again, the degree of stiffness will vary with fiber content.

Because designs are woven, individual threads may snag. This, in turn can compromise the design.

Like all linen, linen damask wrinkles easily, so treat it accordingly.

Because of its multi-layered weave, stains in damask can go deep and be very difficult to remove.

How to Sew Damask Fabric

Because damask is created using tight, contrasting weaves, sewing damask fabric should be easy, right? It’s true in many cases. However, different fiber compositions can present a variety of issues.

Tightly woven cotton and linen fibers resist unraveling and fraying and tend to hold their shape well. However, there are other fibers that you can use to create damask fabric that don’t hold their shape well. 

If you’re working with silk, polyester, or rayon, you might want to use a fabric stabilizer to help the fabric retain its shape during cutting and sewing.

Most types of damask are not stretchy. But some types of fiber will create a bit of stretch. If you’re working with a damask that has some stretch, make sure to use:

  • The correct sewing machine needle. A blunt needle works well with stretchy fabrics.
  • Polyester thread. It can stretch with your fabric.
  • A stretch stitch like a narrow zigzag stitch.

Caring for Damask

Few people would call damask delicate, but its unique qualities mean that it has some unique care needs. [3] Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for any fabric. Aside from that, here are a few more tips to keep your damask looking stunning.

Dry Cleaning

If your item’s manufacturer specifies dry clean only, then only dry clean your item.


Damask’s double-layered weave means that stains can set in fast and be difficult to remove. So address any spill or stain immediately.

Do not soak a damask garment. Instead, spot clean with a hydrogen peroxide based stain remover. Do not use a bleach based remover, as it can damage the fibers.

Machine Washing

Check the manufacturer’s instructions. If your item is machine washable, wash it at the manufacturer’s recommended temperature, using a mild detergent.

Hand Washing

Some damasks, particularly linen and cotton, need to be hand washed.

Hand wash your damask in cool water, using a detergent that has neither bleach nor any chemical brightener. Avoid roughly scrubbing. 

Rinse your item in room temperature water.


If the garment label specifies that your item can be machine dried, then dry it until damp. Iron it dry to avoid wrinkles.

You can also line-dry your damask. Just make sure to dry it taut in order to avoid wrinkles.

Damask Unmasked

Damask is a hard-wearing, versatile fabric that blends different weaving techniques to create designs. Damask can be made using a variety of synthetic and natural fibers, but usually only employs one or two colors of thread.

Elegant and durable, damask fabrics are a natural for housewares, upholstery, table linens, curtains, and rugs. You might also find damask scarves, handbags, and outerwear.

Damask is typically easy to care for and easy to sew. Both of these qualities, however, depend on the fiber content.

What’s your favorite way to use damask? We’d love to hear about it in the comments!

damask fabric care and sewing


  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Silk Road | https://www.britannica.com/topic/Silk-Road-trade-route
  2. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Jacquard loom | https://www.britannica.com/technology/Jacquard-loom
  3. Georg Jenson Damask | Wash & Care | https://www.georgjensen-damask.com/wash-and-care-damask.aspx

What Is Rayon Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is rayon

Rayon is a light, breathable fabric most commonly used as a silk substitute. Rayon is plant-derived, so some describe it as a natural material. On the other hand, because of the intense processing of that material, others consider rayon to be synthetic. What is rayon made of? Is it eco-friendly? And, most importantly, how do you care for it?

What is Rayon Made Of?


Rayon is made from cellulose. Cellulose is derived from the fibre of different types of plants. Your rayon may come from one kind of plant, or from a mixture of plant fibres and other materials. Some examples of plant material that goes into rayon include:

  • Bamboo
  • Wood pulp
  • Agricultural byproducts
  • Cotton waste
  • Oranges

How is Rayon Made? 

Different types of rayon are made through slightly different processes. But here are the basics.

First, rayon manufacturers turn the plant fibre into pulp. Next, they treat the pulp with chemicals to break it down into a cellulose solution. Then they push this viscous material through a spinneret, which extrudes the pulp into fibres. After extrusion, the fibres go into another chemical bath. 

Finally, the fibres are spun into the thread that will be woven into rayon cloth.

You can watch the entire process here.

Different Kinds of Rayon

There are several different types of rayon.

Viscose is made using the viscose process [1]. The most common fibres used in viscose rayon are wood and bamboo. Viscose rayon has a wide variety of uses, from clothing to industry to cosmetic products like wipes.

Modal is made from reconstituted cellulose from beech trees. Most often, it appears in fabrics combined with cotton or Spandex. Modal is primarily used in clothing.

Lyocell is made using a process called dry jet-wet spinning. Its primary use is as a cotton substitute in clothing. It also appears in medical dressings, conveyor belts, and some types of paper. Much, but not all Lyocell is made from bamboo.

Tencel is a type of Lyocell.

Cupro (also called Bemberg) is produced using copper and ammonia.

What is Rayon Used For? 

This versatile material appears in a wide range of household and industrial products that many people use every day:


Rayon began as a silk substitute. But it substitutes for cotton, as well. It also stands on its own.

Silk Substitute

In 1855, Frenchman Georges Audemars created the first artificial silk through a process called nitrification [2]. He called the result “rayon.” 

Almost 30 years later, in 1884, Hilaire de Charbonnet, the Comte de Chardonnet, created “Chardonnay silk” through a similar process. 

Finally, ten years after that, in 1894, Charles Frederick Cross, Edward John Bevan, and Clayton Beadle patented their version, viscose

Cotton Substitute

Rayon and cotton share some characteristics. Both are soft and breathable. In addition, both hold color well. On top of that, some rayon is even made from cotton fibres. Most importantly, though, rayon is less expensive than cotton.

For these reasons, rayon is a popular cotton substitute in clothing manufacture.

Yarn and Thread

Yarn manufacturers make both all-rayon yarn and yarn that’s a mixture of rayon and other materials like wool. You might find rayon yarn and thread marketed as viscose, linen viscose, or even vegan silk.

Bedding and Housewares

Rayon’s soft texture, breathability, and moisture-wicking properties make it a popular fabric for sheets, pillowcases, blankets, and bedspreads.


Although rayon isn’t durable enough to use for upholstery on its own, when blended with stronger fibres, it adds softness. Rayon blends are a popular upholstery fabric.


Viscose rayon is soft and holds dye well. For this reason, it’s a popular material for decorative area rugs.

Medical Uses

You’ll find rayon used in medical dressings and medical tape, as well as in “cotton” balls, wipes, and cosmetic swabs.

Tyre Cords

Rayon has been used to make tyre cords since 1935.

What is Rayon Material Like?

Because of its use as a silk substitute, you can probably guess that rayon is a light fabric with a soft texture. Some of its other properties include:

A natural shine that comes from extrusion. This shine can vary in appearance and intensity. Some types of rayon look different when seen from different angles or in a different light.

Rayon is both breathable and heat conducting. This makes it ideal for use in clothing for warm, and even humid climates.

It’s absorbency and moisture wicking ability make rayon a natural for cosmetic and medical use, as well as for bedding and housewares.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rayon

There’s a lot to be said for this revolutionary fabric, but it’s not perfect for every use. Moreover, its unique qualities give it unique drawbacks.


Rayon is an incredibly versatile fabric with a wide range of industrial and home uses.

It accepts dye very well and has a natural shine.

Rayon is highly absorbent. At the same time, it’s moisture-wicking. This makes it an excellent material for warm weather clothing.

Rayon is also naturally mildew-resistant

And, interestingly, rayon doesn’t gather static electricity.


Rayon isn’t very strong. It’s less resilient than either cotton or silk, and it doesn’t resist abrasion very well.

Water weakens rayon. Most rayon items are recommended for hand-wash only.

Rayon is prone to shrinking, sagging, and wrinkling. The edges also ravel easily.

Rayon is heat-conducting, which means that heat passes through it easily. This makes it a good fabric for warm weather, but a poor fabric for cold weather.

Unfortunately rayon doesn’t hold its shape well

How Easy is Rayon to Sew?

Do you know how to sew rayon? It can be difficult.

Rayon can be slippery. It can shift and slide around. Also, pins and needles can leave their mark.

However, the largest issue by far with sewing rayon is the material’s difficulty holding its shape. Fortunately, there are a number of tips and tricks that can make it a bit easier.

Here are a few.

Choose the Right Rayon

Pure rayon can be difficult to work with. However, there are a lot of rayon blends on the market that might make your job easier. The right rayon blend can give you the qualities of rayon that you want, such as softness, with added stability.

Choose the Right Pattern

Rayon’s light, silky texture means that it’s great for flowing, drapey garments. What it’s not so great for, however, is sharply-shaped, tight-fitting items. So to maximize your chances of success, start with the right type of garment.


Although the labels of rayon garments recommend hand-washing or even dry cleaning, some experts recommend pre washing rayon fabric in the washing machine before sewing with it. This is because rayon is very susceptible to shrinking. So you want to get any shrinkage out of the way before you begin putting your garment together [3].

Needles and Pins

Use the appropriate size needles and pins for your fabric weight. Also, make sure that both are sharp, in order to avoid making unnecessarily large holes in your fabric, or even snags. 

Rotary Cutter

Some experts recommend using a rotary cutter to cut your rayon, as it can provide greater accuracy [4].

Stitch Curves and Edges

To help your pieces hold their shape, staystitch curves before you put the pieces together. Also make sure to stitch your raw hem edges to keep them from unraveling.

Give it a Rest

Consider hanging your almost-finished garment on a hanger for 24 hours before hemming it. Again, this is because rayon tends to sag and bag. Hanging it will give the fibers a chance to settle into their final configuration before you sew that hem.

Is Rayon Durable?

Unfortunately rayon is not particularly durable. It’s subject to abrasion and shrinkage. It can lose its shape over time. The fibres also become weaker when they get wet.

Some rayon blends, however, are reasonably durable. These include rayon blended with cotton, rayon blended with wool, and rayon blended with linen.

How to Care for Rayon

caring for rayon

Rayon garments have such a wonderful look and feel. How can you keep them looking their best? And if the worst happens, how can you fix it?

How to Clean Rayon

Dry-cleaning is your first and best option. But if you want to wash your garment yourself, treat it as a delicate. This means:

  • Mild detergent
  • Cold water
  • Hand wash or machine wash in the gentle cycle
  • When machine washing, turn the garment inside out and wash inside a mesh bag
  • Never twist or wring the fabric. Squeeze gently instead.
  • Do not machine dry
  • Air dry the garment flat or on a padded hanger

Does rayon shrink when washed? You bet it does. It can also lose its colour and softness. Modal and Lyocell have chemical finishes that make them better able to withstand machine washing. Still, it’s important to treat them as delicates and avoid the dryer.

You might find that air-drying your rayon garments leaves them stiff and feeling a bit rough. They may also wrinkle. Ironing can help. But, again, you have to be very careful.

How to Iron Rayon

Ironing delicate fabrics like rayon can be almost as tricky as washing them. The biggest danger is scorching the fabric. Ironing can also leave an unattractive shine on rayon. Therefore:

  • Set your iron to medium hot (setting 3)
  • Use a press cloth between the iron and your garment
  • Iron on the wrong side of the garment, just to be safe

It might seem intimidating at first, but once you know how to get wrinkles out of rayon, the process is quite simple.

How to Shrink Rayon

There are times when you might want to shrink rayon, such as when prewashing it before sewing with it. It’s easy. Here are a few ways to do it safely.

Method 1: Hand Washing 

First, gently hand wash it and let it soak in the water for several minutes. 

Next, dry your fabric. If you want subtle shrinkage, press out the extra water then air-dry your fabric either flat or hanging. 

For more dramatic shrinkage, place your fabric in the dryer on the gentle setting.

Method 2: Machine Washing

Earlier, we recommended against machine washing because of the potential for shrinkage. However, if shrinking your rayon is the goal, then machine wash it in warm, or even hot water on the gentle cycle. Again, take care to turn your garment inside out and wash it inside a mesh bag.

Again, you can either air dry your fabric, or, for maximum shrinkage, pop it in the dryer on the gentle cycle.

How to Unshrink Rayon

The first and best defense, of course, is knowing how to prevent rayon from shrinking in the first place. But if the deed is done, never fear. There are a few things you can do. You may not be able to get your garment back to exactly the way it was, but you might be able to make it better.

Method 1: Relax and Stretch

Think of your shrunken fibres as tense muscles. What they need is a bit of warmth and TLC, and a hug from a fuzzy towel.

  1. Fill a bucket with warm (not hot!) water.
  2. Add one cap full of baby shampoo or hair conditioner.
  3. Soak your garment in the warm water, gently massaging it to relax the fibres.
  4. Rinse your garment in cold water.
  5. Press out excess water. Do not wring!
  6. Lay your garment on a towel.
  7. Gently roll the towel up with your garment inside. This will stretch the fibres.
  8. Press to release more water.
  9. Unroll the towel.
  10. Use your hands to gently stretch the garment back to its original size.
  11. Air dry your garment flat.

Method 2: Steam Ironing

Warmth, heat, and moisture. Are you sensing a theme? Steam ironing can also help your rayon garment to regain its original proportions. Here’s how to do it.

  1. Fill a spray bottle with warm water.
  2. Put your steam iron on the lowest setting.
  3. Turn your garment inside out and lay it flat on the ironing board.
  4. Spritz your garment with water.
  5. Iron your garment gently. Make sure it doesn’t dry out.
  6. Stretch the garment, also gently, until it regains its original dimensions.
  7. Air dry your garment, either flat or on a non-metal hanger.
  8. You can increase the stretch by weighting down the fabric during drying, or holding it in place with clothespins.

Is Rayon Eco-Friendly?

That’s a good question. On one hand, rayon production often relies on waste materials or sustainable crops like bamboo. So that’s good.

On the other hand, processing of those eco-friendly materials requires huge amounts of toxic chemicals, which is bad for the environment.

The production methods for modal and lyocell are exceptions, as these methods reuse the chemicals rather than releasing them as waste products.

To add even more confusion, all rayon is biodegradable to some degree [5]. Viscose even biodegrades faster than cotton.

So, is rayon eco-friendly? In some ways, yes. In other ways, not so much.

What Alternatives Are There to Rayon?

Rayon was invented as a cheaper alternative to natural fabrics like silk and cotton. And, if price isn’t your first concern, these are still good alternatives.

Linen, which is made from flax fibres, is another good alternative. It’s excellent for warm weather, and is relatively easy to work with.

Hemp fabric has a similar feel to cotton and linen. Hemp uses half the water that cotton crops use. It can also be either woven or knit.

Final Thoughts

Rayon is a semi-synthetic fabric made from chemically processed plant fibres. There are several different types of rayon, and their uses range from clothing manufacture to medical and industrial uses. 

The materials that go into rayon production are generally eco-friendly and sustainable. At the same time, rayon production methods can be highly polluting. Different kinds of rayon are biodegradable to differing degrees.

Rayon is incredibly versatile. At the same time, it can be very delicate. Special care must be taken when cleaning it and sewing with it.

Still, when it comes to a budget-friendly alternative to silk or cotton, rayon is difficult to beat. And there’s nothing like its silky texture or drapability.

Do you enjoy working with rayon? Do you have any tips or tricks for working with it or keeping it in tip-top shape? If so, we’d love to hear about it!

how easy is rayon to sew


  1. Ahasan Habib | Viscose Manufacturing Process | https://textilestudycenter.com/viscose-manufacturing-process/
  2. EDinformatics | Great Inventions: Rayon | https://www.edinformatics.com/inventions_inventors/rayon.htm
  3. Saki Jane | How To Sew With Rayon | https://www.seamwork.com/issues/2019/03/how-to-sew-with-rayon
  4. Katie Whittle | Sewing with Rayon Challis | https://blog.colettehq.com/fabric/cs-x-colette-rayon-challis
  5. Mary Warnock, Kaaron Davis, Duane Wolf, and Edward Gbur | Biodegradation of Three Cellulosic Fabrics in Soil | https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4fe5/ebfdb75bcbe84202b8fd5fab95b384f827f0.pdf

What Is Poplin Fabric And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is poplin

Fabric names can be confusing. Some, like cotton, describe what a fabric is made from. Others, like viscose, refer to the production process. And poplin? What is poplin, anyway? The name poplin doesn’t describe either composition or a production process. Rather, it refers to the texture and arrangement of the fibres. 

What is Poplin Fabric?


What kind of fabric is poplin? And what is poplin fabric made of? 

Poplin fabric is a woven fabric like linen. Only unlike linen, which is necessarily woven from flax fibres, poplin can consist of any number of different fibres, whether natural or synthetic. Sometimes, it can even consist of more than one kind of fibre.

Poplin refers to a style of weaving, poplin weave, which produces a distinct texture, and a fabric that’s simultaneously fine and strong.

What is Poplin Weave?

Poplin weave is a plain, tight weave. Typically, the weft (vertical) fibres are thicker and/or coarser than the warp (vertical) fibres. This combination creates a fine but extremely strong corded fabric that’s excellent for upholstery, housewares, and clothing.

The History of Poplin

Poplin fabric dates back to 15th-century France, specifically in Avignon, where the Pope had a residence. The name itself derives from the word papeleine, meaning papal.

Originally, poplin consisted of silk, wool, or cotton for the warp fibres and worsted yarn for the weft fibres. Over time, however, the definition has expanded to include not only other kinds of fibres, but plain-weave fabrics consisting of a single fibre. Single-fibre poplin sometimes lacks the typical corded texture but retains the name.

Admittedly, it can be confusing, but you can think of it like this: poplin is a fabric with a tight plain weave, where the weft fibres and the warp fibres are typically of different thicknesses.

You might also see poplin fabric described as broadcloth (in the United States), tabinet, or Eolienne (a similar texture and process with a lighter end product).

Common Uses for Poplin Fabric

What is poplin fabric used for?

Poplin fabric is the best of both worlds: strong but soft, fine but durable. It’s a terrific all-purpose fabric, and its popularity comes as little surprise. Where can you find poplin today? It’s all around us.


poplin dress

Historically, poplin has been a popular material for dresses. Its fine, soft texture gives it a luxurious feel, making some types of poplin a less expensive alternative to silk. At the same time, it is durable enough for everyday wear, especially in winter.

Fans of Louisa May Alcott’s novel Little Women might remember, for example, the impoverished main characters attending a party in poplin dresses. The characters considered the fabric acceptable for a party, though they bemoaned that it wasn’t as chic or luxurious as the silk dresses of the party’s wealthier attendees [1].

Today it’s also a popular fabric for shirts and trousers.

Winter Clothing

Poplin’s original composition, silk and wool, combined with its characteristic weave, made it a natural for winter-weight clothing. The combination of fibres with the tight weave means that it insulates well.


During World War II, both the British and American military discovered poplin as a fabric for uniforms. Its strength was the most obvious selling point. But poplin also proved to be an excellent all-weather fabric: cool in the heat and warm in cold weather.


Poplin’s durability also makes it an excellent fabric for upholstery, housewares, and home furnishings. You will find poplin seat covers, cushions, sheeting, curtains, and more. 


Cotton poplin has a natural crispness and holds its shape well. It’s also durable and easy to work with. These qualities make it excellent for certain types of crafts like quilting and patchwork. 

What is Poplin Material Like?

Poplin material is hard-wearing yet fine. It has a natural sheen and softness that suggests luxury, but, with the exception of wool and silk poplin, doesn’t require delicate handling. It’s easy to sew and some varieties, particularly cotton and polyester poplin, resist wrinkling as well as wear.

What is Poplin Cotton?

Poplin cotton is widespread in both clothing manufacture and crafting. It’s a medium-weight fabric that’s similar to quilting cotton in both texture and ease of use. At the same time, cotton poplin’s weave makes it more wrinkle-resistant than ordinary quilting cotton.

What does cotton poplin feel like? It feels a bit stiffer than quilting cotton, and some varieties feel a bit heavier. It may also have poplin’s characteristic corded texture.

Polyester Poplin

Polyester poplin, or poly poplin fabric, is a fabric woven in the poplin style, using polyester fibres. It’s soft and, like many polyester fabrics, extremely wrinkle resistant. Unlike some other types of poplin, polyester poplin has no ribbing. 

Poly poplin fabric is widely used for table linens, backdrops, and drapes.

Poplin vs. Twill 

What’s the difference between twill vs. poplin? At first glance, it can be easy to mistake the two. Like poplin, twill also has a corded texture. Twill can also be made from a variety of fibres, both natural and synthetic. Both are used in clothing, and both are hard-wearing and easy to work with.

The difference is in the weave.

Both twill weave and poplin weave are fundamental weave types (the third is satin weave). However, while poplin’s weft fibres are vertical, twill’s weft fibres lay diagonally to the warp fibres. 

warp weft structure 3-1 twill
A typical three-up, one-down twill structure.

Also, while poplin weave takes one weft thread over one warp thread then under (and so forth), the weft fibres in a twill pass over and under more than one warp thread, with a “step” between rows.

For example, in a 2/2 twill, the weft fibres pass over two warp fibres then under two.

There are four ways to classify twill:

  • According to the “step” (2/2, 3/1, and so on)
  • By the direction of the twill line (left-hand or right-hand)
  • According to whether the warp or weft thread is the facing thread
  • By the nature of the twill line that is ultimately produced (simple twill, expanded twill, etc.)

In short, twill, like poplin, is a woven fabric with a corded texture. But with twill, the cords lay diagonally instead of vertically. 

Poplin vs. Broadcloth 

Broadcloth vs. poplin: now there’s a complicated distinction.

In some contexts, for example in United States clothing manufacture, the words have come to mean nearly the same thing: a fabric with a plain, tight weave. But there are distinctions.

Traditionally, broadcloth was made exclusively from wool. This made it sturdy like poplin, but much coarser in texture. 

Today, broadcloth is made from a variety of different fibres. Its characteristic feature is still its dense weave, which makes it a bit thicker than poplin.

Broadcloth also lends itself to unique visual effects. For example, when you interweave threads in two alternating colours, the fabric may look like one solid colour from afar, with a subtle pattern appearing only when seen close up.

Broadcloth is a popular fabric for high-end men’s shirting.

Poplin vs. Oxford 

A poplin shirt in sky blue
A poplin shirt.

What about Oxford vs. poplin?

Like poplin, Oxford refers to a type of weave. Oxford is a common shirting fabric for both men and women. Like poplin, it’s strong and easy to work with. As with twill, the difference between Oxford and poplin lies in the weave.

Oxford weave is a type of basket weave. The warp and weft fibres criss-cross in a pattern that resembles a basket. With poplin, a single weft fibre passes over and under single warp fibres at a 90 degree angle. 

With Oxford fabric, multiple weft fibres pass over the same number of warp fibres at a 90 degree angle. This makes Oxford fabric thick and warm.

Like twill, fibres in a combination of colours can provide interesting visual effects. For example, coloured weft fibres combined with a white warp fibres create a two-toned appearance.

Oxford fabric is popular in both casual and professional wear.

The Pros and Cons of Poplin

white poplin in swirl

It’s difficult to pinpoint specific advantages and disadvantages of a fabric that can come in so many different forms. The qualities of poplin can differ widely depending upon the composition of the fibers with which it is woven. 

Poplin cotton, for example, is an excellent fabric for shirting and crafts. Poly poplin fabric is better suited to housewares than to clothing. Some poplin types are better for winter wear, and others work better in warm weather.

Still, all poplin types share some standout qualities.

The Advantages of Poplin

  • Hard-wearing and durable
  • Simultaneously fine and strong
  • Less expensive than pure wool or silk
  • Easy to work with
  • Extremely forgiving
  • Machine washable
  • Lightweight
  • Comfortable
  • Water resistant
  • Holds it shape well
  • Excellent for embroidery and applique

And the disadvantages of poplin? These come down to the fibre content. 

Polyester poplin doesn’t insulate well, so it’s not the best fabric for winter wear. However it does do well in warm weather.

Poplin made with wool or cotton fibres can be heavy and lack breathability. On the other hand, these types are well suited to protect against rain and wind.

Some poplin varieties are slippery, while others are easier to sew.

Medium-weight and heavy weight poplin types are wrinkle resistant, while thin types are less so.

Stretch poplins will have their own unique issues when it comes to sewing.

And speaking of sewing poplin fabric…

How Easy is Poplin Fabric to Sew?

Poplin in Baby Pink

Have you ever wondered how to sew poplin fabric? It’s not hard, thanks to the fabric’s tight weave. In fact, this versatile, utterly forgiving fabric is one of the easiest to work with.

But, as with all fabrics, there are tips and tricks that can make sewing with poplin even easier.

Common Issues with Sewing Poplin Fabric

Many of the issues people have sewing poplin come down to the fibre type. 

  • Some poplin types, for example poly poplin fabric, can be slippery
  • The tight weave sometimes resists the needle
  • The tight weave can also affect thread tension

Tips and Tricks for Sewing With Poplin

  • If your poplin is a slippery type, use a bit of spray starch before sewing
  • Choose a sharp, new needle that’s the right weight for your fabric
  • Make sure your scissors and rotary cutter are sharp.
  • Keep an eye on your thread tension to make sure stitches are even and uniform
  • Sew stretch poplin as you would any other stretch fabric: with stretch stitches and needles rated for stretch fabrics.

How to Care for Poplin Fabric

In general, poplin fabrics are hard wearing, machine washable, wrinkle resistant, and easy to care for. However, these qualities may differ depending upon the fibre content. Your care should always take fibre content into consideration.

Wool Poplin

The original poplin fabric contained wool fibres, and although it’s less common today, you will still find wool poplin in garments. This is especially true in high end garments.

Wool is prone to shrinkage. Many wool poplin garments are dry-clean only. Always follow the manufacturer’s care instructions, and when in doubt, dry-clean your wool poplin.

Cotton Poplin

Cotton poplin, by contrast, is delightfully easy to care for. It’s the most common type of poplin today, both in garments and in crafting.

It doesn’t stain easily, and it’s machine washable. Moreover, it releases odours easily in the wash. Some manufacturers recommend washing cotton poplin at 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit). But always follow the instructions for your specific garment or fabric.

Although cotton poplin resists wrinkles, they do sometimes happen. You can tumble-dry or iron cotton poplin with a warm iron to release them.

Polyester Poplin

Poly poplin fabric is likewise easy to care for, but the instructions are a bit different. You can machine wash polyester poplin in cold water and tumble dry in a warm, but not hot, dryer. If you need to iron your polyester poplin, use a warm, but again, not hot, iron.

Final Thoughts

Poplin is an incredibly versatile fabric. It comes in a variety of weights and fibre compositions. You’ll find different types of poplin everywhere, from garments to housewares. And most varieties are delightfully easy to work with.

The name ‘poplin’ refers to any plain-weave fabric where the warp fibres and the weft fibres are of different thicknesses. Poplin fabric may use one type of fibre, for example cotton, or a combination of fibres. The differences in fibre composition account for the unique qualities of each type of poplin.

What’s your favorite type of poplin to work with? Do you have any tips or tricks for getting the most out of this versatile fabric? We’d love to hear about it in the comments!

how easy is poplin to sew


  1. Louisa May Alcott | Little Women | http://www.literatureproject.com/little-women/little-women_3.htm

What Is Fleece Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is fleece

What is fleece made of? Originally, fleece meant the wool of sheep, alpacas, angora rabbits, and some goats. But the meaning has expanded to include a wide array of natural and synthetic fibers. All fleece material shares the same soft texture, however. And no matter what it’s made from, fleece fabric is generally easy to work with.

What is Fleece Made Of?

Fleece doesn’t just come from sheep anymore. Today you can find many kinds of natural and synthetic fleece. Some types of fleece fabric consist of a single kind of fiber, and other types are a combination of fibers. 

Does that sound confusing? Try thinking of it this way. Today, the term “fleece” doesn’t refer to the content of the fabric, but rather to the process by which manufacturers produce it.

Specifically, fleece is a knit fabric that’s brushed on one or both sides in order to raise a soft, fuzzy nap. [1]

Natural Fleece

sheep fleece

Much of the animal-derived fleece in use today comes from sheep’s wool. Sheep’s fleece has a surprising variety of characteristics and uses , depending on the breed of sheep. The most common uses are for making yarn, garments, and bedding. [2]

You might also find plant-derived fleece made from hemp, bamboo, or cotton fibers. 

Synthetic Fleece

soft fleece blanket in baby pink

The term “fleece fabric” refers to synthetic fleece. 

The first synthetic fleece material was invented in the late 1970s by engineers at the Malden Mills textile factory. First, the factory wove polyester fibers into a light fabric. Then they brushed the fabric to increase the volume of the fibers. This gave the fleece fabric its characteristic soft, fuzzy texture.

Different types of synthetic fleece material include polar fleece, polyester fleece, and Sherpa fleece.

Polar fleece is soft and fuzzy. It’s typically used for blankets and garments. Sherpa fleece has a textured nap similar to that of wool. You’ll often find Sherpa fleece lining mittens and coats, though some manufacturers use it for garments, also.

Why Has it Become So Popular?

color palette of fleeces

Synthetic fleece material is ubiquitous in clothing and crafts, and it’s easy to see why. It’s inexpensive, moisture-wicking, and super tough-wearing. It’s also easy to work with and has a lovely, baby-soft texture. Because the edges don’t fray, it’s a popular material for no-sew crafts, as well. And it can also be eco-friendly.

Tough but Soft

Nothing feels quite so soft and lovely against the skin as fleece. At the same time, it’s durable, tear-resistant, and repels moisture quite well, too. You can use it just as easily for dog toys as you can for baby blankets. And if you’ve purchased a fleece pullover, you’ll enjoy it for a long, long time.

Insulating and Water-Wicking

olive green fleece sweater with orange zip

You already know that synthetic fibers keep moisture and wind out and body heat in. This is how your waterproof keeps you warm and dry. Fleece fabric doesn’t repel moisture, but it does help it pass through quickly, which also keeps it away from your skin.

Also, the nap presents a second barrier, which puts additional air space between the fabric and your skin.

Easy to Work With

Fleece fabric doesn’t fray easily. This means that you don’t have to hem the edges. This makes fleece especially well suited to crafts like no-sew blankets. It holds its shape well, too. You can also cut it easily, and sewing fleece fabric is a dream. [3]


A lot of people see the word plastic and think pollution. But some types of fleece actually help the environment. We’ll talk more about this in a bit. But if you’re looking for environmentally friendly fabrics, try:

  • Hemp fleece
  • Bamboo fleece
  • Polar fleece

What is Fleece Commonly Used For? 

A lot of things! You can probably think of some uses off the top of your head. Others, though, might surprise you.


woman wearing blue fleece top

That’s an obvious one. For many people, fleece pullovers are a wardrobe staple. Fleece pajamas are popular, too. It also makes an excellent material for light jackets and outdoors clothing like scarves, hats, and mittens.


Because it’s so easy to work with, fleece is a natural for crafts, especially for children’s crafts. Crafters may use fleece for:

  • Blankets
  • Handbags
  • Clothing crafts
  • Pillows
  • Puppets
  • Slippers
  • Stuffed animals
  • Applique
  • Gift bags

And more. [4]


Because fleece fabric is delightfully soft and touchable, it’s no surprise to find it used extensively in housewares such as blankets, pillows, and throws. You might also find it lining oven gloves.


Did you know that you can use fleece for gardening? It’s true. You can cover your plants with horticultural fleece to protect them from cold, frost, wind, and pests. Fleece crop covers can also help your plants to mature faster by raising the temperature of the air around them. [5]

Is it Easy to Sew Fleece?

white fleece fabric in a swirl

In general, fleece fabric is very easy to sew. However, it does have a few unique properties that one must take into consideration. Fortunately, there are tips and tricks for getting around them.

How to Sew Fleece Fabric

In general, sewing fleece fabric is super easy. Because it doesn’t unravel, you don’t need to hem it, and it will generally hold its shape. Also, it’s a very forgiving fabric. If you need to remove stitches, you can do so without fear of leaving holes or other damage.

For the most part, sewing fleece fabric comes down to cutting and stitching–and sometimes you don’t even need to do the stitching.

Tips and Tricks for Sewing With Fleece

Fleece material is a knit fabric. This means that it does have some stretch to it. Generally the stretch will only go in one direction. So before you cut, figure out in which direction the stretch lies, and plan accordingly.

Make sure your scissorsor rotary cutter blade are sharp. Dull blades won’t do well with fleece fabric.

Choose polyester or polyester-wrapped thread rather than all-cotton thread. All-cotton thread has no give, and it may break. Polyester thread is much better suited to the stretch of knit fleece fabric.

Use a size 12 (80) needle to sew your fleece. A ballpoint needle can travel through the fibers without damaging them. Installing a new needle before sewing with fleece can also help to prevent damage.

You can sew with a regular presser foot. However, a walking foot can help the fleece to move efficiently through your sewing machine without bunching up or getting stuck. If you do use a regular presser foot, sew a little more slowly and patiently to avoid problems.

Use a narrow zig zag stitch, preferably around .5 millimeters. Zig zag stitches are one of the stitches that work well with knit and stretch fabrics.

Choose a stitch length of around 3.5 millimeters. A longer stitch will provide more give over the seam.

If you’re sewing in the stretchy direction, hold the fabric taut while you sew.

Although fleece fabric isn’t prone to fraying, pinking the edges will add an extra measure of protection against unraveling.

As with any fabric, pre-wash your fleece before sewing to avoid problems with shrinkage. Wash in warm water and hang to dry.

Is Fleece Sustainable? 

Many kinds of fleece are not just sustainable, but actually help to improve the environment.

Polar Fleece

Did you ever wonder what happens to plastic bottles and other plastic items when you pop them into the recycling? Many of them end up being melted down, spun into thread, and turned into polar fleece [6]. This type of fleece is warm, durable, and moisture-wicking. It’s also lightweight and marvelously soft. Best of all, it turns waste into something truly useful.

Hemp Fleece

Hemp fleece is also an environmentally friendly fabric [7]. Growing hemp requires less water than growing cotton, for one thing. It also requires fewer pesticides and less land than cotton. And, unlike cotton, hemp plants can produce a multitude of different products, from medicines and cosmetics to housewares and foods.

Bamboo Fleece

Bamboo fibers are used in the production of several different fabrics, including fleece, rayon, and linen.

Bamboo is a hardy plant that grows fast. An adult plant can regrow itself back to harvestable size in just three to five years. It doesn’t take a lot of land or a lot of water to grow a lot of bamboo. No pesticides are required, either. And fabric made from bamboo is naturally antimicrobial and antifungal [8].

If that’s not enough, bamboo produces 35 percent more oxygen than similar plants, and absorbs five times as much carbon.

So, although several kinds of fleece are eco-friendly, bamboo fleece might be one of the most eco-friendly fabrics of all.

Which is Better, Fleece or Wool?

That depends on a lot of things. Have a look.

The Advantages of Wool

  • Water repellent
  • Wind repellent
  • Biodegradable
  • Provides UV protection
  • Odor resistant

The Advantages of Fleece 

  • Less expensive
  • Quick drying
  • Lightweight
  • Moisture-wicking

In general, if you need a water-resistant or wind-resistant fabric, its lanolin makes wool the better material. Also, unlike fleece, if wool gets wet, it can still provide some insulation. It does take a lot longer to dry than fleece does, however.

On the other hand, for comfort and weight, fleece wins hands down. And you’ll spend a lot less on high quality fleece fabric than you will on high quality wool.

Fun and Fabulous Fleece

There are a lot of different types of fleece fabric. You can find fleece made from animal hair, plant fibers, and various types of synthetic materials. Although the word originally referred to wool, it now describes any knit fabric that’s brushed to give it a fluffy nap.

Sewing with fleece is generally easy. It’s a forgiving fabric that doesn’t easily fray. For this reason it lends itself to no-sew crafts. However, like any knit or stretch fabric, there are tips and tricks to sewing it.

What’s your favorite way to use fleece fabric? Do you have any tricks to share? We’d love to hear about it in the comments.

how easy is fleece to sew


  1. Sewing Directory | What is Fabric Nap? | https://www.thesewingdirectory.co.uk/what-is-fabric-nap/
  2. The Natural Fibre Company | Wool & Yarn Types | https://www.thenaturalfibre.co.uk/sites/default/files/files/NFC%20Wool%20Charts(1).pdf
  3. Bunycraft | No Sew Fleece Blanket | https://www.instructables.com/id/No-Sew-Fleece-Blanket-1
  4. Loraine Brummer | 41 Incredible Fleece Craft Ideas | https://feltmagnet.com/textiles-sewing/Fleece-Craft-Project-Ideas
  5. RHS Advice | Fleece and crop covers | https://www.rhs.org.uk/Advice/profile?PID=906
  6. SNV Plastics | How Is Fleece Made Out Of Plastic Bottles? | http://www.snvplastics.com/how-is-fleece-made-of-plastic-bottles/
  7. Better Meets Reality | Is Hemp Sustainable & Eco Friendly For Clothing, Fabric & Textiles? | https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/is-hemp-sustainable-eco-friendly-for-clothing-fabric-textiles/
  8. Wanda Thompson | How Eco-Friendly Are Bamboo Products? | https://householdwonders.com/are-bamboo-products-eco-friendly/ 

What Is Chenille Made Of And How Easy Is It To Work With?

what is chenille made from

There’s something about chenille that just makes a person want to touch it. Soft, slightly stretchy, and wonderfully textured, there’s nothing like it in the world. But what is chenille material, anyway? And what is chenille made of? How is chenille material different from chenille yarn? And, of course the most important question of all: how do you sew with it? 

What is Chenille?

The word chenille has a number of different meanings. First, the word itself means “caterpillar” in French. And it makes sense when you look at the fabric’s namesake.

chenille - caterpillar

Chenille also refers to both chenille yarn and the fabric that is made with chenille yarn. 

chenille swatch
Image courtesy of neefer, licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

There are also various crafts and processes that create products that are called chenille. The crafts and their products are all quite different from one another. However, they all share that defining feature: a soft, fuzzy, lumpy-bumpy texture. 

What is chenille made of? It’s not the fiber content that matters in the production of chenille, but the process. Today you can find cotton chenille fabrics, as well as chenille made from silk, nylon, and rayon, among others.

A Short History of Chenille

chenille weave
“Weaving chenille” by molybdena is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Chenille yarn dates back to the late 1700s. As the name suggests, it came from France. Rather than being made from a specific material, chenille’s characteristic texture comes from the production process.

The first chenille involved a three-step process. First, fabric was woven using a process called leno. Leno weave means wrapping two warp yarns (the strands that stretch from top to bottom) around single weft (right to left) yarn. This produces a strong but sheer open-weave fabric. Weavers then filled in the gap with additional strands. [1]

Finally, manufacturers cut the leno fabric into strips to make chenille yarn. 

Scottish Contributions

Around 1830, Alexander Buchanan, a foreman in a shawl factory in Paisley, brought the idea of chenille to Scotland. Workers at this factory would give this process a new twist, so to speak.

At Buchanan’s factory, weavers wove tufts of colored wool into blankets. Next, workers cut the blankets into strips. Then the strips were treated with heated rollers in order to create the characteristic soft, fuzzy texture. Finally, weavers wove the fuzzy yarn into fabric, which the factory used to produce a new type of shawl.

James Templeton and William Quiglay would further refine the process, adapting it to facilitate the production of intricately designed imitation Oriental rugs. Templeton’s factory would become one of the world’s leading carpet factories in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Chenille in the United States

Technique and application took another giant leap forward in the 1890s in the United States. Artisan Catherine Evans Whitener revived the craft of hand-tufting, and used it to create bedspreads with an embroidered appearance. This, too, took on the name chenille, and eventually became a pillar of the economic development of northwest Georgia. [2]

chenille bedspread
“chenile bedspread” by klynslis is licensed under CC BY 2.0

For the next 40 years, Dalton, Georgia would become the “tufted bedspread capital” of the country. In addition, the technique would appear in the production of pillow shams, mats, carpets, and more.

As the craft developed and grew, it incorporated other techniques, as well. Some of these included:

  • Stamping colors and patterns onto the fabric
  • Heat-washing chenille to shrink it and set the colors
  • Dying yarn before tufting it
  • Eventually adapting sewing machines to tuft fabric

Modern Developments

Aside from shawls, manufacturers didn’t begin to use chenille for clothing in a widespread way until the 1970s. At this time, rapid technological development allowed for mass production of chenille yarn. Further developments in the 1990s allowed for industrial scale production of chenille fabric. 

Mass production allowed the price to come down, and today, mass-produced chenille is a very popular material for all sorts of products.

How is Chenille Used Today?

You’ll find chenille anywhere you want a soft, touchable, stretchy fabric. And that means clothing, household goods, and crafts.


Chenille is a popular fabric for sweaters, tops, and dresses. Its softness makes it a delight to wear against the skin. Its stretch means that a garment made with chenille fabric will be forgiving of bodily flaws. And it drapes and flows beautifully.

Chenille is also excellent in a variety of climates. It’s naturally insulating. At the same time, its loose weave means that it allows good air flow in warmer weather.


Chenille has long been a favorite for use in upholstery. Its texture is similar to that of velvet, but chenille is less expensive to produce. Chenille is also a top notch material for blankets, bedspreads, pillows, and throws.


Chenille quilting is actually several different crafts. First, you can cut pre-made chenille fabric into quilt blocks and use them to create a quilt top.

But chenille quilting can also refer to different techniques using stacks of regular quilting cotton. 

One technique involves sewing your batting-stuffed quilt blocks with the backings together so that the edges stand up in tufts. You might recognize the technique from the ever-popular easy rag quilt, as shown below.

Another technique involves stitching fabric stacks on the bias, cutting them with a special chenille cutting tool, and then brushing the resulting rows into tufts. You can then sew the blocks the traditional way, or edges-up, as in a rag quilt.

You can see this technique in the video below.

What is Chenille Fabric Like?

With so many techniques and products that use the word, it’s natural to be confused. However, all chenille yarns and fabrics share a few characteristics.


Whether you’re talking about velvety chenille yarn or hand-tufted cotton chenille fabric, the first characteristic anyone will notice is fluffiness.


Chenille yarn is fabric cut on the bias. This gives it a built-in stretchiness. When chenille yarn is woven into chenille fabric, the result is a highly stretchy, pliable fabric with a wonderful drape.


Because chenille is made by wrapping fibers, it is thick and sometimes lumpy.


What color is chenille? It can be any color, of course. However, some chenille may also appear iridescent. This is because the fibers will look different when seen from different directions.

Raised Rows

Chenille fabric is characterized by raised rows of either tufted or wrapped fibers. These rows sometimes look like ribbing. They can also look spiky, like the caterpillar for which chenille is named.


The loose weave of chenille fabric means that it readily absorbs liquids.


For such a delicate-feeling fabric, chenille is surprisingly abrasion-resistant and durable. Just mind the edges, as loose fibers can fray quite easily.

How to Sew Chenille Fabric

Chenille is a wonderful fabric with unique qualities. However, it’s not the best fabric for every project. Also, those unique qualities mean that there are a few unique issues when it comes to sewing chenille.

Advantages of Chenille Fabric

  • Soft and silky
  • Stretchy
  • Durable
  • Drapes well
  • Absorbent
  • Insulating
  • Resists abrasion

Disadvantages of Using Chenille

  • Unravels easily
  • Difficult to retain its original shape
  • Needs special care
  • Prone to shrinking

How Easy is Chenille to Sew?

Sewing with chenille can be tricky. It’s very stretchy, which means that it can be hard to get a piece to hold its shape while you sew it.

It can also be slippery, especially if your chenille is made from synthetic fibers. And this can cause puckering, thread-bunching, and other problems when you try to put it through your sewing machine.

Also, chenille is prone to fraying and unraveling. 

Here are a few tricks to make things easier.

Use a walking foot to help your fabric to feed through the machine in an even manner. 

Pinning the edges of your fabric at one-inch intervals, or even less, can also help your fabric to keep its shape while you’re sewing. 

Sew with a ballpoint needle, rather than a universal needle. A ballpoint needle is specifically designed to work with stretch fabrics. You might also see ballpoint needles packaged as Jersey needles or stretch needles.

Choose a stretch stitch on your sewing machine. The design of a stretch stitch is meant to keep stitches from popping when the fabric stretches. Many sewing machines represent the stretch stitch with a glyph that looks like a lightning bolt. In absence of a stretch stitch, you can also use a narrow zigzag stitch.

Don’t finish the edges. Chenille fabric frays very easily. 

Wonderful Chenille

The techniques used to create the first chenille also created a revolution in fabric. For more than two hundred years, artisans, crafters, and manufacturers have developed new processes and technologies that have increased the variety, popularity, and uses of chenille-type yarns and fabrics. Today chenille is a favorite for both clothing and housewares.

Working with chenille takes patience and a few tricks, whether you’re using pre-made chenille fabric or making your own. But the results are always striking and one hundred percent unique.

Have you made your own chenille? Do you have any tips or tricks for sewing with chenille fabric that you’d like to share? We’d love to hear about it in the comments.

how easy is chenille to sew


  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Weaving | https://www.britannica.com/technology/weaving#ref290553
  2.  Randall L. Patton | Chenille Bedspreads | https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/arts-culture/chenille-bedspreads